BerlinGermany, EastSocialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Germany, WestGermanyCommunism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Psychodrama: Primarily a technique of group psychotherapy which involves a structured, directed, and dramatized acting out of the patient's personal and emotional problems.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.Cooking and Eating UtensilsVocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Whistleblowing: The reporting of observed or suspected PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT or incompetence to appropriate authorities or to the public.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)RussiaMiddle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.RestaurantsWeather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.ShoesLove: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.