Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Drug Repositioning: The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Aminoimidazole Carboxamide: An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.Benzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Giant Cells, Langhans: Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages) seen in granulomatous inflammations such as tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and deep fungal infections. They resemble foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN BODY) but Langhans giant cells contain less chromatin and their nuclei are arranged peripherally in a horseshoe-shaped pattern. Langhans giant cells occur frequently in delayed hypersensitivity.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Dictionaries, ChemicalAntifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.LaunderingLaundry Service, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all activities pertaining to the hospital laundry service.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Surgical Staplers: Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)