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Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.