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Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Bed Conversion: The reallocation of beds from one type of care service to another, as in converting acute care beds to long term care beds.Head-Down Tilt: Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overHospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Weightlessness Countermeasures: Techniques and routines designed to prevent or reverse unwanted effects of weightlessness experienced during actual and simulated space flight, including physiologic changes related to removal of gravitational loading. Specific measures include creation of artificial gravity, exercise, low-level lower body negative pressure, and use of anti-deconditioning devices. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp294-297)Hospital Bed Capacity, 300 to 499Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Cardiovascular Deconditioning: A change in cardiovascular function resulting in a reduction in BLOOD VOLUME, and reflex DIURESIS. It occurs frequently after actual or simulated WEIGHTLESSNESS.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Gravity, Altered: A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Progressive Patient Care: Organization of medical and nursing care according to the degree of illness and care requirements in the hospital. The elements are intensive care, intermediate care, self-care, long-term care, and organized home care.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Beauty CultureCapillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Orthostatic Intolerance: Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on recumbency. Types of this include NEUROCARDIOGENIC SYNCOPE; POSTURAL ORTHOSTATIC TACHYCARDIA SYNDROME; and neurogenic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION. (From Noseworthy, JH., Neurological Therapeutics Principles and Practice, 2007, p2575-2576)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Housing: Living facilities for humans.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Clinical Alarms: Components of medical instrumentation used for physiological evaluation of patients, that signal when a threshold value is reached.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Early Ambulation: Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.EnglandRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Intermediate Care Facilities: Institutions which provide health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care which hospitals or skilled nursing facilities provide, but because of their physical or mental condition require care and services above the level of room and board.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sunbathing: Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.LaunderingPatients' Rooms: Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Hospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Concurrent Review: Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.United StatesDiagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.