A plant genus of the family MALPIGHIACEAE which includes an Amazonian psychoactive plant that contains the beta-carboline harmine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
A beta-carboline alkaloid isolated from seeds of PEGANUM.
Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
An N-methylated indoleamine derivative and serotonergic hallucinogen which occurs naturally and ubiquitously in several plant species including Psychotria veridis. It also occurs in trace amounts in mammalian brain, blood, and urine, and is known to act as an agonist or antagonist of certain SEROTONIN RECEPTORS.
Compounds that contain the biogenic monoamine tryptamine and are substituted with one methoxy group and two methyl groups. Members of this group include several potent serotonergic hallucinogens found in several unrelated plants, skins of certain toads, and in mammalian brains. They are possibly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
A philosophy based upon spiritual intuition that is believed to transcend ordinary sensory experiences or understanding.
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
The major of two hallucinogenic components of Teonanacatl, the sacred mushroom of Mexico, the other component being psilocin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Religious philosophy expressing the fundamental belief that departed spirits may be contacted by the living through a medium.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.