MycosesBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Bacterial Infections and Mycoses: Infections caused by bacteria and fungi, general, specified, or unspecified.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Chromoblastomycosis: Scaly papule or warty growth, caused by five fungi, that spreads as a result of satellite lesions affecting the foot or leg. The extremity may become swollen and, at its distal portion, covered with various nodular, tumorous, verrucous lesions that resemble cauliflower. In rare instances, the disease may begin on the hand or wrist and involve the entire upper extremity. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p362)Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Arthrodermataceae: A family of ascomycetous fungi, order Onygenales, characterized by smooth ascospores. Genera in the family include Arthroderma, Keratinomyces, and Ctenomyces. Several well-known anamorphic forms are parasitic upon the skin.Sporotrichosis: The commonest and least serious of the deep mycoses, characterized by nodular lesions of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by inhalation of contaminated dust or by infection of a wound.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Zygomycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Trichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.EsculinAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.TriazolesAntibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Mice, Inbred C57BLLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Protein PrecursorsPeritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Mice, Inbred BALB CStreptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.OsteomyelitisPyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.