An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A reference measure of food used to identify the calorie and nutrient content in a particular amount of that food. It is defined by an authoritative source, such as the Food Guide Pyramid devised by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. It is different from PORTION SIZE, which is the amount of food one chooses to eat at a single meal.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.