Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Techniques used in microbiology.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)