Azaguanine: One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.Methylthioinosine: 6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.Azauridine: A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis thereby preventing formation of cellular nucleic acids. As the triacetate, it is also effective as an antipsoriatic.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.GuanineCentella: A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.TriterpenesBatch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Dupuytren Contracture: A fibromatosis of the palmar fascia characterized by thickening and contracture of the fibrous bands on the palmar surfaces of the hand and fingers. It arises most commonly in men between the ages of 30 and 50.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Gout Suppressants: Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.ThiazolesBupranolol: An adrenergic-beta-2 antagonist that has been used for cardiac arrhythmia, angina pectoris, hypertension, glaucoma, and as an antithrombotic.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.