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Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)