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Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Serial Extraction: The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Retrognathia: A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Malocclusion, Angle Class III: Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.