Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.Enoplida: An order of nematodes of the subclass ADENOPHOREA. Its organisms commonly have a cylindrical esophagus. The superfamilies of this order are DIOCTOPHYMATOIDEA; MERMITHOIDEA; and TRICHUROIDEA.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tResearch Support, U.S. GovernmentLanguage Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Ethylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)IrelandAthletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Partnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)