Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Duplicate Publication as Topic: Simultaneous or successive publishing of identical or near- identical material in two or more different sources without acknowledgment. It differs from reprinted publication in that a reprint cites sources. It differs from PLAGIARISM in that duplicate publication is the product of the same authorship while plagiarism publishes a work or parts of a work of another as one's own.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.New YorkPatient Education HandoutEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Physiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.