Auditory Brain Stem Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.BerlinCongresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Germany, EastSocialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)HumanitiesBooksSocial Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.MiningDermatoglyphics: The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Coal MiningText Messaging: Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.CHARGE Syndrome: Rare disease characterized by COLOBOMA; CHOANAL ATRESIA; and abnormal SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Mutations in CHD7 protein resulting in disturbed neural crest development are associated with CHARGE Syndrome.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.