ATP Synthetase Complexes: Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Arginine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Lysine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.Methionine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Glutamate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.MalonatesRNA, Transfer, Glu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Tryptophan-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates tryptophan with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.2.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Argininosuccinate Synthase: An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Argininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.Thermus: Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.Citrullinemia: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CitrullineThermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Desulfitobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Peptococcaceae, that reductively dechlorinates CHLOROPHENOLS.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Aminoacylation: A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.