Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.AtlasesModels, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.AxisAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Visible Human Projects: Digital image data sets, consisting of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Shame: An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cafe-au-Lait Spots: Light brown pigmented macules associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS and Albright's syndrome (see FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).Bites and StingsNeurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).