Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration: Conducting a fine needle biopsy with the aid of ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Vacuum Curettage: Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Displacement (Psychology): The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Latency Period (Psychology): The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Introversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Race Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.BooksPneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Mediastinal Diseases: Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Forgiveness: Excusing or pardoning for an offense or release of anger or resentment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Pancreatic Cyst: A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Motivational Interviewing: It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Trephining: The removal of a circular disk of the cranium.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Parotid DiseasesDependency (Psychology): The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.