Genes, Synthetic: Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Progesterone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein: Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Germany