Arteriovenous Anastomosis: A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.Ergotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).OhioCarnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.BerlinArteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Heart Bypass, Right: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Incus: One of three ossicles of the middle ear. It conducts sound vibrations from the MALLEUS to the STAPES.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Horseshoe Crabs: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.Surgical Equipment: Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Postthrombotic Syndrome: A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.Postphlebitic Syndrome: A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.