Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Malocclusion, Angle Class III: Malocclusion in which the mandible is anterior to the maxilla as reflected by the first relationship of the first permanent molar (mesioclusion).Orthodontic Appliances, Removable: Dental devices such as RETAINERS, ORTHODONTIC used to improve gaps in teeth and structure of the jaws. These devices can be removed and reinserted at will.Orthodontic Appliance Design: The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Extraoral Traction Appliances: Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Overbite: A malocclusion in which maxillary incisor and canine teeth project over the mandiblar teeth excessively. The overlap is measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane and is also called vertical overlap. When the overlap is measured parallel to the occlusal plane it is referred to as overjet.Open Bite: A condition in which certain opposing teeth fail to establish occlusal contact when the jaws are closed.Diastema: An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Maxillofacial Development: The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.Retrognathia: A physical misalignment of the upper (maxilla) and lower (mandibular) jaw bones in which either or both recede relative to the frontal plane of the forehead.Orthodontics, Interceptive: Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Palatal Expansion Technique: An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Activator Appliances: Loose-fitting removable orthodontic appliances which redirect the pressures of the facial and masticatory muscles onto the teeth and their supporting structures to produce improvements in tooth arrangements and occlusal relations.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Fingersucking: Sucking of the finger. This is one of the most common manipulations of the body found in young children.Chin: The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.Orthodontic Wires: Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Serial Extraction: The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Jaw Relation Record: A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Myofunctional Therapy: Training or retraining of the buccal, facial, labial, and lingual musculature in toothless conditions; DEGLUTITION DISORDERS; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; MALOCCLUSION; and ARTICULATION DISORDERS.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures: Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.Dental Occlusion, Traumatic: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.Orthodontic Retainers: Orthodontic appliances, fixed or removable, used to maintain teeth in corrected positions during the period of functional adaptation following corrective treatment. These appliances are also used to maintain the positions of the teeth and jaws gained by orthodontic procedures. (From Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p263)Tongue Habits: Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Prognathism: A condition marked by abnormal protrusion of the mandible. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need: A dental health survey developed to evaluate a patient's orthodontic treatment need and priority for orthodontic care. The index is based on an assessment of degree of MALOCCLUSION and the potential aesthetic and dental health benefit of the treatment under consideration.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Mesial Movement of Teeth: Migration of the teeth toward the midline or forward in the DENTAL ARCH. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Maxillofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the maxilla and face or facial bones.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Centric Relation: The location of the maxillary and the mandibular condyles when they are in their most posterior and superior positions in their fossae of the temporomandibular joint.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Jaw Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Pacifiers: Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Osteotomy, Le Fort: Transverse sectioning and repositioning of the maxilla. There are three types: Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement or the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort II osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort III osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures with fracture of one or more facial bones. Le Fort III is often used also to correct craniofacial dysostosis and related facial abnormalities. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1203 & p662)Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Space MaintenanceOrthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Orthodontic Space Closure: Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Eruption, Ectopic: An abnormality in the direction of a TOOTH ERUPTION.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tooth Migration: The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Mandibular Prosthesis: A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the mandible missing or defective as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery.Nail Biting: Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Mandibular Osteotomy: Intraoral OSTEOTOMY of the lower jaw usually performed in order to correct MALOCCLUSION.Acrylic ResinsMouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Anatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.BrazilElectromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Denture, Partial: A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Orthodontic Extrusion: Orthodontic movement in the coronal direction achieved by outward tension on the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT. It does not include the operative procedure that CROWN LENGTHENING involves.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Ostomy: Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.