Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Receptor, Galanin, Type 2: A galanin receptor subtype with broad specificity for full length GALANIN, galanin peptide fragments and GALANIN-LIKE PEPTIDE.Receptor, Galanin, Type 1: The most abundant galanin receptor subtype. It displays a high affinity for the full-length form of GALANIN.Receptors, Galanin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for GALANIN and galanin peptides. They are generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN to meditate the neurological effects of galanin. Several subtypes of galanin receptors occur with differing specificities for the full length galanin, galanin peptide fragments, and galanin-like peptide.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Motivational Interviewing: It is a client-centered, directive method for eliciting intrinsic motivation to change using open-ended questions, reflective listening, and decisional balancing. This nonjudgmental, nonconfrontational interviewing style is designed to minimize a patient's resistance to change by creating an interaction that supports open discussion of risky or problem behavior.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).