A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A large family of parasites in the order EIMERIIDA. They cause COCCIDIOSIS in a number of vertebrates including humans.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.