Apicoectomy: Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrograde Obturation: Procedure that involves the removal of infectious products from a root canal space through use of special instruments and fillings. This procedure is performed when root canal treatment fails.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.San FranciscoDental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.South CarolinaExpert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.IndiaMichiganCatalogs, UnionMyrtus: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Appointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.