Pityriasis: A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.PyrimidinonesSulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Hemiarthroplasty: A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: Nucleoside-2',3'-cyclic phosphate nucleotidohydrolase. Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the 2'- or 3'- phosphate bonds of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. Also hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates. Includes EC 18.104.22.168 and EC 22.214.171.124. EC 3.1.4.-.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Consumer Product SafetyHerb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Inappropriate Prescribing: The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.