Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Anthropology, Medical: Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Buddhism: The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Sri LankaReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Hinduism: A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Book ReviewsConsciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.EuropeEthnology: The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.CaliforniaNatural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.BooksConnecticut