Anion Transport Proteins
Organic Anion Transporters
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent
Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Anion Exchange Resins
Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 220.127.116.11.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Cell Membrane Permeability
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Biological Transport, Active
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Free Radical Scavengers
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent
Amino Acid Sequence
Kidney Tubules, Proximal
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.