Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Phthalic Anhydrides: Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Maleic Anhydrides: Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Citraconic Anhydrides: Methylmaleic anhydrides.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Aconitic AcidMaleatesDiethyl Pyrocarbonate: Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Rutamycin: A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.NorbornanesRuminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Benzene DerivativesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.MercaptoethylaminesIndicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.