Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.TetrazolesDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Tachyphylaxis: Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Material Safety Data Sheets: Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Patients' Rooms: Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Glutamyl Aminopeptidase: A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.AmidohydrolasesEndocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators: Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.