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Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Surgically-Created Structures: Organs or parts of organs surgically formed from nearby tissue to function as substitutes for diseased or surgically removed tissue.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Pain Insensitivity, Congenital: A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Testosterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.