Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.ChlorobenzenesNitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.