Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Atmosphere Exposure Chambers
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Indians, South American
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Blood Gas Analysis
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Medicare Part A
The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Sleep Apnea, Central
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Respiratory Function Tests
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Physical Education and Training
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Blood Flow Velocity
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
Cardiovascular Physiological Processes
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Middle Cerebral Artery
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Analysis of Variance
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Doping in Sports
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Blood Circulation Time
Remote Sensing Technology
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Cardiac Complexes, Premature
Work of Breathing
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Camelids, New World
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.