Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Allyl CompoundsCycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.IminesBoranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Oxidative Coupling: The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KetonesXanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)HydrocarbonsIpomoea batatas: A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. Some cultivars are sweet and edible whereas bitter varieties are a source of SAPONINS. This sweet potato is sometimes referred to as a yam (DIOSCOREA).Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Mallotus Plant: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.PhotochemistryAlkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.DelawareChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.GreeceConnecticutAwards and PrizesFormularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.