Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to diacetyl in the presence of NAD.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.