A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Hospitals controlled by the city government.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
A THEOPHYLLINE derivative with broncho- and vasodilator properties. It is used in the treatment of asthma, cardiac dyspnea, and bronchitis.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.
A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.
A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.
The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).
A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.
Adverse drug effects associated with CHOLINERGIC ANTAGONISTS. Clinical features include TACHYCARDIA; HYPERTHERMIA; MYDRIASIS, dry skin and dry mucous membranes, decreased bowel sounds and urinary retention in peripheral anticholinergic syndrome; and HALLUCINATIONS; PSYCHOSES; SEIZURES; and COMA in central anticholinergic syndrome.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.
An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.
A topical glucocorticoid used in various DERMATOSES. It is absorbed through the skin, bound to plasma albumin, and may cause adrenal suppression. It is also administered as the valerate.
The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.