Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Thanatophoric Dysplasia: A severe form of neonatal dwarfism with very short limbs. All cases have died at birth or later in the neonatal period.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalReceptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Epiphyses, SlippedEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HandbooksBooksManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Toe Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the TOES, consisting of two for the great toe, and three for each of the other toes.Genu Varum: An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together. Genu varum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasia (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; Blount's disease); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Chondrodysplasia Punctata, Rhizomelic: An autosomal recessive form of CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA characterized by defective plasmalogen biosynthesis and impaired peroxisomes. Patients have shortened proximal limbs and severely disturbed endochondral bone formation. The metabolic defects associated with the impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form of chondrodysplasia punctata. (From Scriver et al, Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 6th ed, p1497)Genu Valgum: An inward slant of the thigh in which the knees are close together and the ankles far apart. Genu valgum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasias (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; HURLER SYNDROME); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)