Zygosaccharomyces lentus sp. nov., a new member of the yeast genus Zygosaccharomyces Barker.
Unusual growth characteristics of a spoilage yeast, originally isolated from spoiled whole-orange drink and previously identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, prompted careful re-examination of its taxonomic position. Small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were determined for this strain and for four other strains also originally described as Z. bailii but which, in contrast to other strains of this species, grew poorly or not at all under aerobic conditions with agitation, failed to grow in the presence of 1% acetic acid and failed to grow at 30 degrees C. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that these strains represented a phylogenetically distinct taxon closely related to, but distinct from, Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region showed that, while all five strains had identical ITS2 sequences, they could be subdivided into two groups based on ITS1 sequences. Despite such minor inter-strain sequence variation, these yeasts could readily be distinguished from all other currently described Zygosaccharomyces species by using ITS sequences. On the basis of the phylogenetic results presented, a new species comprising the five strains, Zygosaccharomyces lentus sp. nov., is described and supporting physiological data are discussed, including a demonstration that growth of this species is particularly sensitive to the presence of oxygen. The type strain of Z. lentus is NCYC D2627T. (+info)
Two putative MAP kinase genes, ZrHOG1 and ZrHOG2, cloned from the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii are functionally homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene.
The salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii can adjust its osmotic balance when responding to osmotic shock by accumulating glycerol as the compatible osmolyte. However, the mechanism of glycerol production in Z. rouxii cells and its genetic regulation remain to be elucidated. Two putative mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, ZrHOG1 and ZrHOG2, were cloned from Z. rouxii by their homology with HOG1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequences of ZrHog1p and ZrHog2p indicated close homology to that of Hog1p and contained a TGY motif for phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase. When ZrHOG1 or ZrHOG2 was expressed in an S. cerevisiae hog1delta null mutant, the salt tolerance and osmotic tolerance characteristics of wild-type S. cerevisiae were restored. In addition, the aberrant cell morphology and low glycerol content of the hog1delta null mutant were corrected, indicating that ZrHog1p and ZrHog2p have functions similar to Hog1p. While the transcription of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) of the ZrHOG1-harbouring S. cerevisiae mutant was similar to that of wild-type S. cerevisiae, the ZrHOG2-harbouring strain showed prolonged GPD1 transcription. Both Zrhog1delta and Zrhog2delta Z. rouxii null mutants showed a decrease in salt tolerance compared to the wild-type strain. The present study suggested the presence of a high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway in Z. rouxii similar to that elucidated in S. cerevisiae. Two putative MAP kinase genes in Z. rouxii appeared to be significant in either osmotic regulation or ion homeostasis. (+info)
Combined effects of pH and sugar on growth rate of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a bakery product spoilage yeast.
The effects of citric acid-modified pH (pH 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, and 5.5) and a 30% glucose-70% sucrose mixture (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 875, and 900 g/liter) on an osmophilic yeast, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, were determined by using synthetic medium. One hundred experiments were carried out; 50-ml culture flasks were inoculated with 10(3) CFU ml(-1) by using a collection strain and a wild-type strain cocktail. The biomass was measured by counting cell colonies, and growth curves were fitted by using a Baranyi equation. The growth rate decreased linearly with sugar concentration, while the effect of pH was nonlinear. Indeed, the optimal pH range was found to be pH 3.5 to 5, and pH 2.5 resulted in a 30% reduction in the growth rate. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two nonlinear predictive models developed previously to describe bacterial contamination. Equations derived from the Rosso and Ratkowsky models gave similar results; however, the model that included dimensionless terms based on the Ratkowsky equation was preferred because it contained fewer estimated parameters and also because biological interpretation of the results was easier. (+info)
Purification, characterization, cDNA cloning and expression of a novel ketoreductase from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.
A novel ketoreductase isolated from Zygosaccharomyces rouxii catalyzes the asymmetric reduction of selected ketone substrates of commercial importance. The 37.8-kDa ketoreductase was purified more than 300-fold to > 95% homogeneity from whole cells with a 30% activity yield. The ketoreductase functions as a monomer with an apparent Km for 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl acetone of 2.9 mM and a Km for NADPH of 23.5 microM. The enzyme is able to effectively reduce alpha-ketolactones, alpha-ketolactams, and diketones. Inhibition is observed in the presence of diethyl pyrocarbonate, suggesting that a histidine is crucial for catalysis. The 1.0-kb ketoreductase gene was cloned and sequenced from a Z. rouxii cDNA library using a degenerate primer to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. Furthermore, it was expressed in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris and shown to be active. Substrate specificity, lack of a catalytic metal, and extent of protein sequence identity to known reductases suggests that the enzyme falls into the carbonyl reductase enzyme class. (+info)
Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 8. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.
This paper reports the genomic analysis of strain CBS732 of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a homothallic diploid yeast. We explored the sequences of 4934 random sequencing tags of about 1 kb in size and compared them to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene products. Approximately 2250 nuclear genes, 57 tRNAs, the rDNA locus, the endogenous pSR1 plasmid and 15 mitochondrial genes were identified. According to 18S and 25S rRNA cladograms and to synteny analysis, Z. rouxii could be placed among the S. cerevisiae sensu lato yeasts. (+info)
Oxygen requirements of the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in synthetic and complex media.
Most yeast species can ferment sugars to ethanol, but only a few can grow in the complete absence of oxygen. Oxygen availability might, therefore, be a key parameter in spoilage of food caused by fermentative yeasts. In this study, the oxygen requirement and regulation of alcoholic fermentation were studied in batch cultures of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii at a constant pH, pH 3.0. In aerobic, glucose-grown cultures, Z. bailii exhibited aerobic alcoholic fermentation similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other Crabtree-positive yeasts. In anaerobic fermentor cultures grown on a synthetic medium supplemented with glucose, Tween 80, and ergosterol, S. cerevisiae exhibited rapid exponential growth. Growth of Z. bailii under these conditions was extremely slow and linear. These linear growth kinetics indicate that cell proliferation of Z. bailii in the anaerobic fermentors was limited by a constant, low rate of oxygen leakage into the system. Similar results were obtained with the facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis. When the same experimental setup was used for anaerobic cultivation, in complex YPD medium, Z. bailii exhibited exponential growth and vigorous fermentation, indicating that a nutritional requirement for anaerobic growth was met by complex-medium components. Our results demonstrate that restriction of oxygen entry into foods and beverages, which are rich in nutrients, is not a promising strategy for preventing growth and gas formation by Z. bailii. In contrast to the growth of Z. bailii, anaerobic growth of S. cerevisiae on complex YPD medium was much slower than growth in synthetic medium, which probably reflected the superior tolerance of the former yeast to organic acids at low pH. (+info)
Yeast [PSI+] "prions" that are crosstransmissible and susceptible beyond a species barrier through a quasi-prion state.
The yeast [PSI(+)] element represents an aggregated form of release factor Sup35p and is inherited by a prion mechanism. A "species barrier" prevents crosstransmission of the [PSI(+)] state between heterotypic Sup35p "prions." Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica Sup35 proteins, however, show interspecies [PSI(+)] transmissibility and susceptibility and a high spontaneous propagation rate. Cross-seeding was visualized by coaggregation of differential fluorescence probes fused to heterotypic Sup35 proteins. This coaggregation state, referred to as a "quasi-prion" state, can be stably maintained as a heritable [PSI(+)] element composed of heterologous Sup35 proteins. K. lactis Sup35p was capable of forming [PSI(+)] elements not only in S. cerevisiae but in K. lactis. These two Sup35 proteins contain unique multiple imperfect oligopeptide repeats responsible for crosstransmission and high spontaneous propagation of novel [PSI(+)] elements. (+info)
Assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential in yeast cell populations by flow cytometry.
In yeast the use of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) has been restricted to the evaluation of mitochondrial respiratory function including the discrimination between respiratory-competent and -deficient cells. This study describes the optimization and validation of a low-concentration Rh123 staining protocol for the flow-cytometric assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) changes in whole yeast cells. The optimized protocol was validated by the use of compounds that specifically affect mitochondrial energetics. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to monitor Rh123 distribution within the cell. Incubation of yeast cell suspensions with Rh123 (50 nM, 10 min) gave minimal non-specific binding and cytotoxicity of the dye. The ratio (R) between the green fluorescence and forward scatter (both measured as log values) was used to measure Delta Psi m with only little dependence on cell 'volume' and mitochondrial concentration. Cells treated with mitochondrial membrane de- or hyper-polarizing agents displayed a decrease and an increase of R values respectively, indicating that changes of the Rh123 distribution in cells indicate variations in the Delta Psi m. Live and dead cells also displayed significantly different R values. The method described here allows assessment of Delta Psi m changes in whole yeast cells in response to a given drug. Moreover, the relationship between drug effects and disorders of mitochondrial energetics might be addressed. (+info)