Prospective study of the clinical course, prognostic factors, causes of death, and survival in patients with long-standing Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (1/178)

PURPOSE: The long-term clinical course of unselected patients with gastrinomas as well as other functional pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) in whom the excess-hormone state is controlled is largely unknown. To address this issue, patients with gastrinomas were assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) were prospectively studied. All had controlled acid hypersecretion and were assessed yearly, with a mean follow-up period of 13.8+/-0.6 years (range, 0.1 to 31 years). Annual assessments of possible factors that might affect prognosis or treatment approaches were performed, such as those for tumor size and location; the presence, location, and extent of metastases; and the occurrence of ectopic Cushing's syndrome or another PET syndrome. Deaths were categorized as ZES-related or non-ZES-related and classified into different causes. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients died, all of non-acid-related causes. One half died of a ZES-related cause; they differed from those who died of non-ZES deaths by having a large primary tumor, more frequently a pancreatic tumor; lymph node, liver, or bone metastases; ectopic Cushing's syndrome; or higher gastrin levels. The extent of liver metastases correlated with survival rate. The presence of liver metastases alone only moderately decreased survival time; however, the additional development of bone metastases or ectopic Cushing's syndrome markedly decreased survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: In ZES, gastrinoma growth is now the main single determinant of long-term survival, with one half of patients dying a gastrinoma-related death and none an acid-related death. Large primary tumors that are pancreatic in location, the development of liver metastases, (especially if associated with bone metastases or Cushing's syndrome), and the extent of liver metastases are all important prognostic factors. The identification of these factors allows the recognition of subgroups that can be used to tailor antitumor treatment approaches.  (+info)

Specificity of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy: a prospective study and effects of false-positive localizations on management in patients with gastrinomas. (2/178)

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is being increasingly used both for localization and, in some cases, diagnosis of various diseases. There are no prospective studies of its specificity or occurrence of false-positive results and their effects on management. This study was designed to address both of these issues. METHODS: Over a 40-mo period, 146 consecutive patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) undergoing 480 SRS examinations were studied prospectively. Patients were admitted at least yearly and underwent SRS as well as conventional imaging studies (ultrasonography, CT, MRI) and angiography, if necessary. All admissions were assigned to one of five different clinical categories in which imaging studies had different purposes. SRS localizations were classified as true-positive or false-positive based on preset criteria. A false-positive result was determined to change clinical management based on five preset criteria. RESULTS: Of all SRS examinations, 12% resulted in a false-positive localization for a neuroendocrine tumor or its metastases, resulting in a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 86% and positive and negative predictive values of 85% and 52%, respectively. Extra-abdominal false-positive localizations (2/3) were more common than intra-abdominal (1/3). Thyroid disease, breast disease and granulomatosis lung disease were the most frequent causes of extra-abdominal false-positive localizations. Accessory spleens, localization to previous operative sites, renal parapelvic cysts and various procedural aspects were the most frequent causes of intra-abdominal false-positive localizations. Of all SRS studies, 2.7% resulted in a false-positive result that altered management. CONCLUSION: False-positive SRS localization occurs in 1 of 10 patients with ZES. By having a thorough understanding of diseases or circumstances that result in false-positive localization and comparing the SRS result with the clinical context, the percentage of patients in whom false-positive localization results in altered management can be reduced to below 3% and the correct diagnosis made in almost every case.  (+info)

Plasma pancreatic polypeptide response to secretin. (3/178)

OBJECTIVE: Intravenously administered secretin stimulates pancreatic polypeptide (PP) release in patients with endocrine enteropancreatic tumors, but data in patients with nontumorous disorders are controversial. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the plasma PP pattern after secretin administration in healthy subjects and in patients with gastroduodenal diseases investigated for recurrent ulcer disease and/or hypergastrinemia. METHODS: Synthetic secretin was given as an intravenous bolus (2U/kg) in ten patients with Zollinger Ellison syndrome, ten with duodenal ulcer, ten with atropic gastritis and ten healthy volunteers. Blood samples were taken before and at regular intervals for 30min after secretin injection. Plasma PP and gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Secretin promptly and significantly (P<0.01) increased PP plasma levels in all groups of subjects without any differences in peak values. There were no significant correlations between PP and gastrin plasma levels. CONCLUSIONS: Secretin at pharmacological doses is a powerful stimulus for PP release.  (+info)

Surgery to cure the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (4/178)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The role of surgery in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is controversial. To determine the efficacy of surgery in patients with this syndrome, we followed 151 consecutive patients who underwent laparotomy between 1981 and 1998. Of these patients, 123 had sporadic gastrinomas and 28 had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with an imaged tumor of at least 3 cm in diameter. Tumor-localization studies and functional localization studies were performed routinely. All patients underwent surgery according to a similar operative protocol, and all patients who had surgery after 1986 underwent duodenotomy. RESULTS: The 151 patients underwent 180 exploratory operations. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up after the first operation was 8+/-4 years. Gastrinomas were found in 141 of the patients (93 percent), including all of the last 81 patients to undergo surgery. The tumors were located in the duodenum in 74 patients (49 percent) and in the pancreas in 36 patients (24 percent); however, primary tumors were found in lymph nodes in 17 patients (11 percent) and in another location in 13 patients (9 percent). The primary location was unknown in 24 patients (16 percent). Among the patients with sporadic gastrinomas, 34 percent were free of disease at 10 years, as compared with none of the patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The overall 10-year survival rate was 94 percent. CONCLUSIONS: All patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome who do not have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or metastatic disease should be offered surgical exploration for possible cure.  (+info)

Hypergastrinemia and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia. (5/178)

The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, the most frequent endocrine cells of the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach, are under the trophic stimulus of gastrin. These cells undergo a hyperplastic increase in variety of hypergastrinemic diseases. The most widely accepted nomenclature for the description of hyperplastic proliferation has been retrospectively arranged in a sequence presumed to reflect a temporal evolution of the proliferative process. A comparative, prospective study aimed to verify, in human hypergastrinemic diseases such as atrophic body gastritis (ABG), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and antral gastrin cell hyperfunction (AGCH), the effect of exposure of ECL cells to different pattern of gastrin hypersecretion, is lacking. To this purpose, we studied a series of consecutive patients with ABG, ZES and AGCH at the time of first diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients included in this study (124 ABG, 18 ZES and 10 AGCH) were selected on the basis of two previously performed screening studies aimed to diagnose these diseases. All patients at the time of diagnosis underwent gastroscopy, with multiple biopsies of the gastric body mucosa for the evaluation of qualitative pattern of ECL cells hyperplasia, and basal fasting gastrin determination. A sample of hypergastrinemic patients from each group was further investigated by meal-stimulation of gastrin secretion and quantitative morphometry for CgA positive gastric body endocrine cells. RESULTS: AGCH patients showed only the normal or simple hyperplasia pattern. In the ZES group, simple and linear grades accounted for 38.4 percent and 46.1 percent, respectively. MEN-I patients showed only these two patterns. The majority of ABG patients showed the presence of micronodular pattern (59.7 percent). A correlation analysis between fasting gastrin levels and grade of hyperplasia (r = 0.5580, p < 0.0001), indicates that the greater the gastrin levels, the higher is the degree of severity of ECL hyperplasia pattern. In conclusion, our data support the role of gastrin as the selective contributor to the progression of ECL cell hyperplasia in humans.  (+info)

Clinical aspects of ECL-cell abnormalities. (6/178)

ECL cell hyperplasia results from hypergastrinemia, and in man this occurs due to achlorhydria in atrophic gastritis (pernicious anemia [PA]) and gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome [ZES]). Progression to neoplasia, i.e., ECL cell carcinoids (usually small, multicentric and non-functional), occurs in some five to 10 percent of patients with PA where they remain gastrin-dependent and reversible by normalization of serum gastrin by antrectomy. Even if untreated, the carcinoids are almost invariably benign and do not cause death. In ZES, ECL cell hyperplasia is progressive due to hypergastrinemia. However, carcinoids develop only in the MEN-I subtype but pose no additional threat of malignancy. A conservative approach is recommended for small multicentric carcinoids, and the tumors do not need removal. By contrast, single, large, non-gastrin-dependent carcinoids represent a different biological and clinical problem and are frequently malignant.  (+info)

Diagnosis and treatment of ECL cell tumors. (7/178)

The diagnosis of ECL-omas is easy to perform. In patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), ECL-omas are almost always observed in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. In patients without ZES, the first step is to discard non-gastrin-related sporadic ECL-omas whose prognosis is poor. By contrast, prognosis of ECL-omas in patients with ZES or chronic atrophic gastritis is good. Metastases are rare, and tumor-related deaths are exceptional. In both conditions, ECL-omas measuring less than 1 cm should be treated by endoscopic polypectomy and survey. Treatment modalities (surgery, endoscopic polypectomy) for larger tumors are still discussed. The impact of endoscopic ultrasonography on the therapeutic decision has not yet been evaluated. Considering the good prognosis of these tumors, aggressive surgery could be limited to selected patients. Multicentric studies should be undertaken to determine the best treatment modalities.  (+info)

Detection of bone metastases in patients with endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors: bone scintigraphy compared with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. (8/178)

Scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs is a sensitive method for the staging and therapeutic management of patients with endocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors. The aim of this study was to compare prospectively somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using 111n-pentetreotide with bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate for the detection of bone metastases. METHODS: One-hundred-forty-five patients with proven endocrine GEP tumors were investigated. Patients were classified according to the presence of bone metastases as indicated by CT, MRI or histologic data. Group I included 19 patients with confirmed bone metastases, and group II included 126 patients without bone metastases. RESULTS: In group I, SRS was positive in all 19 patients with bone metastases, and bone scintigraphy was positive in 17 patients. Bone metastases were found to occur predominantly in patients with liver metastases. In group 11, 5 patients had recent bone surgery for fracture or arthritis. SRS showed bone uptake in 4 of these patients, and bone scanning showed abnormal uptake in 5. In 7 of the remaining 121 group II patients, SRS was negative and bone scanning showed abnormal bone uptake suggesting bone metastases. The detection of bone metastases was of major prognostic value, because 42% of group 1 patients died during a 2-y follow-up. CONCLUSION: In patients with GEP tumors, the accuracy of SRS appears to be similar to that of bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases.  (+info)