Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations.
Benefits of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) provided by Zn oxide (ZnO) to 21-d conventionally weaned pigs in the nursery have been documented; however, several management questions remain. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effect on growth from feeding 3,000 ppm Zn as ZnO during different weeks of the nursery period. In Exp. 1 (n = 138, 11.5 d of age, 3.8 kg BW) and Exp. 2 (n = 246, 24.5 d of age, 7.2 kg BW), pigs were fed either basal diets containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn (adequate) or the same diet with an additional 3,000 ppm Zn (high) supplied as ZnO. Pigs were fed four or two dietary phases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, that changed in dietary ingredients and nutrient content (lysine and crude protein) to meet the changing physiological needs of the pigs for the 28-d nursery period. Dietary Zn treatments were 1) adequate Zn fed wk 1 to 4, 2) high Zn fed wk 1, 3) high Zn fed wk 2, 4) high Zn fed wk 1 and 2, 5) high Zn fed wk 2 and 3, and 6) high Zn fed wk 1 to 4. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed high Zn for wk 1 and 2 or the entire 28-d nursery period had the greatest (P < .05) ADG. During any week, pigs fed high Zn had greater concentrations of hepatic metallothionein and Zn in plasma, liver, and kidney than those pigs fed adequate Zn (P < .05). In summary, both early- and traditionally weaned pigs need to be fed pharmacological concentrations of Zn provided as ZnO for a minimum of 2 wk immediately after weaning to enhance growth. (+info)
Bioavailability of zinc in several sources of zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, and zinc metal.
Three zinc depletion-repletion assays were carried out with chicks to determine Zn bioavailability in five sources of ZnO, three sources of ZnSO4.H2O, and two sources of Zn metal. A standard 23% CP corn-soybean meal diet was fed during the first 3 d posthatching, after which it was replaced with a Zn-deficient soy concentrate diet (13.5 mg Zn/kg) until d 7. On d 8 after an overnight period of feed withdrawal, chicks were fed for 12 d the Zn-deficient basal diet containing 0, 4.76, and 9.90 (Assay 1); 0, 5.06, or 10.12 (Assay 2); or 0, 4.73, or 9.13 (Assay 3) mg/kg supplemental Zn from analytical grade (AG) ZnSO4.7H2O (22.7% Zn) to generate a standard response curve. The AG and feed-grade (FG) Zn sources being evaluated were then provided at a level that would fall within the standard curve. Weight gain (Assays 1, 2, and 3) and total tibia Zn (Assay 1) responded linearly (P<.01) to Zn supplementation from ZnSO4.7H2O. Weight gain regressed on supplemental Zn intake gave standard-curve equations with fits (r2) ranging from .94 to .97. In Assay 1, regression of total tibia Zn (Y, in micrograms) on supplemental Zn intake (X, in milligrams/12 d) gave the equation Y = 13.2+6.74X (r2 = .90). Standard-curve methodology was used to estimate relative Zn bioavailability (RBV), with RBV of Zn in the ZnSO4.7H2O standard set at 100%. Four sources of FG ZnO were evaluated: Source 1 (78.1% Zn, hydrosulfide process, U.S.), Source 2 (74.1% Zn, Waelz process, Mexico), Source 3 (69.4% Zn, China), and Source 4 (78.0% Zn, French process, Mexico). Analytical-grade ZnO (80.3% Zn) was also evaluated. Feed-grade ZnO Sources 1 and 4 as well as AG ZnO produced average RBV values that were not different (P>.10) from the standard, but average RBV values for FG Source 2 and FG Source 3 were only 34 (P<.05) and 46% (P<.05), respectively. All sources of ZnSO4.H2O, which included two FG sources (source 1, 36.5% Zn; source 2, 35.3% Zn) and one food-grade source (36.5% Zn), were not different (P>.10) in RBV from the ZnSO4.7H2O standard. Two Zn metal products, Zn metal dust (100% Zn) and Zn metal fume (91.5% Zn), were also evaluated, and they were found to have Zn RBV values of 67 (P<.05) and 36% (P<.05), respectively. Feed-grade sources of ZnO vary widely in color, texture, Zn content, and Zn bioavailability. (+info)
Sequestration of zinc oxide by fimbrial designer chelators.
Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli. By engineering a structural component of the fimbriae, FimH, to display a random peptide library, we were able to isolate metal-chelating bacteria. A library consisting of 4 x 10(7) independent clones was screened for binding to ZnO. Sequences responsible for ZnO adherence were identified, and distinct binding motifs were characterized. The sequences selected exhibited various degrees of affinity and specificity towards ZnO. Competitive binding experiments revealed that the sequences recognized only the oxide form of Zn. Interestingly, one of the inserts exhibited significant homology to a specific sequence in a putative zinc-containing helicase, which suggests that searches such as this one may aid in identifying binding motifs in nature. The zinc-binding bacteria might have a use in detoxification of metal-polluted water. (+info)
Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study).
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary intakes of Zn and Cu and their combination on growth performance of weanling pigs with diverse health status and management strategies. Twelve experiment stations cooperated and used a total of 1,356 pigs that averaged 6.55 kg BW and 22.2 d age at weaning. The four dietary treatments, all of which met or exceeded NRC requirements, were 1) control, 2) 3,000 ppm Zn (from Zn oxide), 3) 250 Cu ppm (from Cu sulfate), or 4) 3,000 ppm Zn and 250 ppm Cu. The diets were fed as a complex Phase I diet (1.4% lysine) for 7 d followed by a Phase II diet (1.2% lysine) for 21 d. Chlortetracycline (220 ppm) was added to all diets. Fecal color (1 = yellow to 5 = black) and consistency (1 = very firm to 5 = very watery) were scored daily for 3 wk. At the end of the 28-d study, 412 pigs were bled at five stations, and plasma Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were determined at one station with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily gain (375, 422, 409, 415 g/d), feed intake (637, 690, 671, 681 g/d), and gain/feed (586, 611, 611, 612 g/kg) were improved (P < .01) by the addition of Zn and(or) Cu. Significant Cu x Zn interactions imply that the responses to Zn and Cu were independent and not additive. There were significant (P < .01) Zn and Cu effects and a Zn x Cu interaction on fecal color (3.17, 3.24, 4.32, 3.57) and consistency (2.39, 2.14, 2.14, 2.13). Dietary additions of Cu and Zn resulted in elevated plasma concentrations of Cu and Zn, respectively. These data indicate that pharmacological additions of 3,000 ppm Zn (oxide) or 250 ppm Cu (sulfate) stimulate growth beyond that derived from intakes of Zn and Cu that meet nutrient requirements. However, the combination of Zn and Cu did not result in an additive growth response. (+info)
Growth-promoting efficacy in young pigs of two sources of zinc oxide having either a high or a low bioavailability of zinc.
Commercial sources of zinc oxide (ZnO) differ widely in Zn relative bioavailability (RBV), but it is unknown whether growth-promoting efficacy in young pigs is influenced by RBV of the ZnO sources used. We compared a low-RBV (39%) ZnO manufactured by the Waelz process (W) to a high-RBV (93%) ZnO manufactured by the hydrosulfide process (HS). Antibacterial agents were included in the diet in only one of the four trials (Exp. 4). In Exp. 1, pigs (n = 36, 6.5 kg, 28 d of age) were randomly assigned in three replicates to receive 0, 1,500, or 3,000 mg Zn/kg from HS Zn in a 21-d growth assay. Growth rates and feed intake responded linearly (P < 0.01) to incremental doses of Zn. In Exp. 2, pigs (n = 60, 6.1 kg, 28 d of age) were randomly assigned in five replicates to receive either 0 or 1,500 mg W or HS Zn/kg during a 21-d feeding period. Growth performance was improved (P < 0.01) by the addition of ZnO. During wk 1, however, pigs receiving HS Zn grew faster (P < 0.03) than those receiving W Zn, but the difference diminished to a trend (P < 0.08) during wk 2. Morphology of duodenal, jejunal, and ileal intestinal sections was examined at d 21 of the assay, but neither source of ZnO had an effect on crypt depth or on villus height or width. In Exp. 3, weaned pigs (n = 48, 5.4 kg, 21 d of age) were randomly assigned in four replicates to the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 2 for a 17-d growth assay. Growth performance was improved (P < 0.05) by the addition of ZnO, but no difference was detected between the two sources. In Exp. 4, pigs (n = 60, 6.2 kg, 28 d of age) were randomly assigned in five replicates to receive either 0 or 1,500 mg/kg W or HS Zn in an 11-d growth assay wherein antimicrobial agents were included in the basal diet. Growth rates during the first 6-d were improved (P < 0.06) by the addition of ZnO, with a trend (P < 0.10) for greater weight gain in pigs receiving HS than in those fed W Zn. During the entire 11-d, however, there was no difference in growth rates between pigs fed the two sources of ZnO. In conclusion, RBV of Zn in ZnO did not substantially affect the growth-promoting efficacy of ZnO in young pigs fed diets with or without antimicrobial agents. (+info)
Development of pulmonary tolerance in mice exposed to zinc oxide fumes.
As a result of repeated exposures to inhaled toxicants such as zinc oxide (ZnO), numerous individuals acquire tolerance to the exposures and display reduced symptoms. To ascertain whether tolerance is developed in an animal model, NIH-Swiss mice were exposed to 1.0 mg/m(3) ZnO for 1, 3, or 5 days (1X, 3X, or 5X), and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were measured. Mice acquired tolerance to neutrophil infiltration into the lungs, as total PMNs returned near baseline in 5X-exposed animals as compared to that of the 1X exposure group (1X = 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(4), 5X = 0.2 +/- 0.1 x 10(4), mean +/- SE, p < 0.05). Development of tolerance to changes in lavageable protein, however, was not observed (1X = 313 +/- 29 microg/ml, 5X = 684 +/- 71 microg/ml, p < 0.05). Tolerance to PMN influx did not persist following re-exposure to ZnO after 5 days of rest. In contrast to ZnO exposure, following single and repeated exposure to aerosolized endotoxin there was development of tolerance to protein in BAL (1X = 174 +/- 71 microg/ml, 5X = 166 +/- 14 microg/ml, p > 0.05), but not to PMN influx (1X = 5.5 +/- 1.7 x 10(4), 13.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(4), p < 0.05). Induction of lung metallothionein (MT) was also observed in mice exposed once or repeatedly exposed to ZnO, suggesting that MT may play a role in its molecular mechanism. (+info)
Effect of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antibacterial agent on nursery pig performance.
A study involving nine research stations from the NCR-42 Swine Nutrition Committee used a total of 1,978 crossbred pigs to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnO concentrations with or without an antibacterial agent on postweaning pig performance. In Exp. 1, seven stations (IA, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, and OH) evaluated the efficacy of ZnO when fed to nursery pigs at 0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 mg Zn/kg for a 28-d postweaning period. A randomized complete block experiment was conducted in 24 replicates using a total of 1,060 pigs. Pigs were bled at the 28-d period and plasma was analyzed for Zn and Cu. Because two stations weaned pigs at < 15 d (six replicates) and five stations at > 20 d (18 replicates) of age, the two sets of data were analyzed separately. The early-weaned pig group had greater (P < 0.05) gains, feed intakes, and gain:feed ratios for the 28-d postweaning period as dietary ZnO concentration increased. Later-weaned pigs also had increased (P < 0.01) gains and feed intakes as the dietary ZnO concentration increased. Responses for both weanling pig groups seemed to reach a plateau at 2,000 mg Zn/kg. Plasma Zn concentrations quadratically increased (P < 0.01) and plasma Cu concentrations quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) when ZnO concentrations were > 1,000 mg Zn/kg. Experiment 2 was conducted at seven stations (KY, MI, MO, NE, ND, OH, and OK) and evaluated the efficacy of an antibacterial agent (carbadox) in combination with added ZnO. The experiment was a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design conducted in a total of 20 replicates. Carbadox was added at 0 or 55 mg/kg diet, and ZnO was added at 0, 1,500, or 3,000 mg Zn/ kg. A total of 918 pigs were weaned at an average 19.7 d of age. For the 28-d postweaning period, gains (P < 0.01), feed intakes (P < 0.05), and gain:feed ratios (P < 0.05) increased when dietary ZnO concentrations increased and when carbadox was added. These responses occurred in an additive manner. The results of these studies suggest that supplemental ZnO at 1,500 to 2,000 mg Zn/kg Zn improved postweaning pig performance, and its combination with an antibacterial agent resulted in additional performance improvements. (+info)
Effect of supplements of zinc salts on the healing of granulating wounds in the rat and guinea pig.
It has now been universally accepted that zinc deficiency interferes in some way with wound healing, but the claims that the addition of zinc supplements to the normally nourished rat accelerates wound healing to super-normal levels has, on investigations, produced contradictory results. In this study the rate of healing of granulating wounds on the backs of two species of animals, the rat and the guinea pig, has been studied when supplements of zinc salts were given in association with a normal diet. The zinc supplements were administered either orally, parenterally, or topically. There was no difference in the rate of healing in either species of animal given zinc supplements by any of the routes used. (+info)