Implant sequence effects in intact male Holstein veal calves: live and slaughter traits.
Seven sequences of growth promotant implants were used in special-fed intact male Holstein veal calves (n = 443). Calves received implants 4 d after arrival at the veal barn, 42, and 84. The following implants were used: placebo (0), Z (36 mg zeranol), ET (20 mg estradiol, 200 mg testosterone), EP/2 (10 mg estradiol, 100 mg progesterone), EP (20 mg estradiol, 200 mg progesterone), and EBA (24 mg estradiol, 120 mg trenbolone acetate). The following sequences were compared: 0-0-0 (negative control), 0-ET-ET, Z-ET-ET, 0-EP-EP, Z-EP-EP, 0-EP/2-EBA, and Z-0-EBA. From 0 to 42 d, Z implants increased (P<.05) ADG by 3.4% compared to placebo. However, implant schemes without an initial Z implant (0-ET-ET and 0-EP-EP) had higher (P<.05) mean ADG for the period from d 42 to 84. From 84 d to the end of the experiment, only the 0-EP/2-EBA treatment increased (P<.05) ADG compared to 0-0-0. Over the entire trial 0-ET-ET, 0-EP-EP, Z-EP-EP, and 0-EP/2-EBA implant sequences increased (P<.05) ADG by 3.2, 3.2, 2.4, and 4.7%, respectively, compared to the 0-0-0 sequence. Blood traits measured within 2 wk before slaughter were not affected by implant sequence, except that sequences with EP had higher (P<.05) leukocyte counts than were observed for the other sequences. Testicular weight was less (P<.01) for all of the implant sequences than for the negative control and less (P<.05) for Z-ET-ET than for 0-ET-ET, 0-EP-EP, 0-EP/2-EBA, and Z-0-EBA. The type and frequency of medical treatments did not differ among implant sequences for any of the 42-d phases, or over the entire trial. Generally, the growth promotant implants currently approved for beef cattle resulted in approximately 50% of the increase in growth rate in Holstein intact bull calves, as has been observed in beef-type steers or heifers. (+info)
Implant sequence effects in intact male Holstein veal calves: carcass characteristics.
Seven sequences of growth promotant implants were used in intact male Holstein veal calves (n = 443). Implants were administered on d 0 (within 4 d after arrival at the veal barn), 42, and 84. The implants used were placebo (0), Z (36 mg zeranol), ET (20 mg estradiol, 200 mg testosterone), EP/2 (10 mg estradiol, 100 mg progesterone), EP (20 mg estradiol, 200 mg progesterone), and EBA (24 mg estradiol, 120 mg trenbolone acetate). The following sequences were compared: 0-0-0 (negative control), 0-ET-ET, Z-ET-ET, 0-EP-EP, Z-EP-EP, 0-EP/2-EBA, and Z-0-EBA. Sequences 0-EP-EP, Z-EP-EP, and 0-EP/2-EBA increased (P<.05) carcass weight from 3.3 to 3.9% compared to nonimplanted controls. There were no differences (P>.05) in percentage of carcass weight accounted for by the fore vs. rear halves of carcasses, suggesting there was no difference in the distribution of weight. Although there were differences in longissimus area, the results were not consistent, except that there was a trend for longissimus area to be increased by the use of estrogenic-androgenic implants (ET and EBA). There were no differences among implant sequences for carcass conformation, fat cover, muscle texture, marbling/ feathering, muscle color, or muscle chemical composition. Of four implant sequences (0-0-0, 0-ET-ET, 0-EP-EP, and 0-EP/2-EBA) tested for differences in Warner-Bratzler shear force tenderness, the latter two sequences averaged higher (P<.05) for shear force than did the negative control. These results suggest that aggressive implant strategies in young, intact Holstein bull calves (raised as veal) have minimal effects on carcass characteristics. (+info)
Assessment of oestrogenic potency of chemicals used as growth promoter by in-vitro methods.
Three in-vitro bioassays were used to compare the oestrogenic potency of chemicals used as growth promoter in beef cattle in certain non-European Union countries (17beta-oestradiol, alpha-zearalanol, testosterone, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate) or found as food contaminant such as the mycotoxin zearalenone and some of their metabolites (17alpha-oestradiol, oestrone, 17alpha-epitestosterone, 19-nortestosterone, androstendione, zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol). The strong oestrogens 17alpha-ethinyl oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol were used as standards. The first bioassay was based on the activation of a reporter gene by oestrogens in recombinant yeast expressing human or rainbow trout oestrogen receptor. In the second bioassay, the vitellogenin gene induction of rainbow trout hepatocyte cultures was used as a biomarker for the exposure to oestrogens. The third bioassay was based on the alkaline phosphatase gene induction by oestrogens in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line. The assessment of oestrogenic potency of these chemicals clearly demonstrates the strong oestrogenicity of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its metabolites and particularly alpha-zearalenol which was as potent as ethinyl oestradiol and diethylstilboestrol in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line. (+info)
Oestrogenic potencies of Zeranol, oestradiol, diethylstilboestrol, Bisphenol-A and genistein: implications for exposure assessment of potential endocrine disrupters.
We have compared the oestrogenic potency of the synthetic oestrogen Zeranol, used as a growth promoter in meat production, and five related compounds, with the potency of 17beta-oestradiol, diethylstilboestrol (DES), genistein, and Bisphenol-A. The potency was assayed by analysing differences in expression levels of endogenous oestrogen-regulated genes in human MCF7 cells, treated with different concentrations of the compounds. Zeranol, 17beta-oestradiol and DES were about equally potent, genistein was four to six orders of magnitude less potent than 17beta-oestradiol but an order of magnitude more potent than Bisphenol-A. There were gene specific differences, the PS2 and TGFbeta3 genes were about equally sensitive to Zeranol, 17beta-oestradiol and DES whereas a down-regulation of MRG1/p35srj could be detected at fmol/l concentrations of Zeranol whereas 17beta-oestradiol was several orders of magnitude less potent. GST mu3 was sensitive to fmol/l concentrations of 17beta-oestradiol but much less sensitive to Zeranol and DES. The very high potency of Zeranol compared with other potential endocrine disrupters suggests that Zeranol intake from beef products could have greater impact on consumers than the amounts of the known or suspected endocrine disrupters that have been found in food. Since little data is available in man, there is an urgent need for reliable measurements of the concentration of Zeranol in human serum after ingestion of meat products from treated animals. (+info)
Effect of zeranol or melengestrol acetate (MGA) on testicular and antler development and aggression in farmed fallow bucks.
Fifteen yearling fallow bucks were randomly assigned by BW to one of three treatment groups: control (C; n = 5), melengestrol acetate (MGA; n = 5), and zeranol (Z; n = 5), to evaluate effects on testicular development, aggressive behavior, antler growth, sexual activity, ADG, and BW. Zeranol-treated bucks received zeranol ear implants (36 mg) at 90-d intervals, and MGA-treated bucks received MGA in the ration (100 microg x animal(-1) x d(-1)). Bucks grazed ryegrass/Coastal bermudagrass pasture and were supplemented with 3:1 corn/soybean meal at 0.45 kg x animal(-1) x d(-1). Body weights, body condition scores (BCS), blood samples, and testis measurements were obtained at d 0 and at 14-d intervals for 229 d. As bucks reached hard antler (7/15 to 8/25), antlers were harvested and weighed, and ejaculates were collected at 14-d intervals. Aggression was evaluated using 10-min video sessions scoring body blows, avoidance, head pushes, and head bunts. Scrotal circumference (SC) and paired testis volume were affected by a day x treatment interaction (P < 0.01); testes of zeranol-treated bucks were smaller than those of control or MGA-treated bucks. First sperm in the ejaculate tended to be delayed (P < 0.10) in zeranol-treated bucks compared with control and MGA-treated bucks. Melengestrol acetate-treated bucks had a maximum sperm concentration in the ejaculate that was three times (P < 0.05) that of control bucks and nine times (P < 0.05) that of zeranol-treated bucks. Antler weight was the least (P < 0.01) for bucks receiving zeranol and greatest (P < 0.10) for MGA-treated bucks; intermediate values were recorded for the control bucks. Aggressive behavior was delayed (P < 0.05) for zeranol-treated bucks until treatment effects were overcome. Melengestrol acetate-treated bucks had decreased (P < 0.01) aggressive behavior compared with control bucks. Melengestrol acetate-treated bucks had increased (P < 0.05) serum testosterone concentrations compared with control and zeranol-treated bucks. Human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated peak serum testosterone concentrations for zeranol-treated bucks were delayed (P < 0.01) compared with control and MGA-treated bucks. Although zeranol-treated bucks overcame treatment effects, they were never able to reach testicular measurements or sperm concentrations equal to those of the control or MGA-treated bucks. Zeranol and MGA treatments may have both positive and negative effects that can be utilized when producing slaughter bucks. (+info)
Binding rather than metabolism may explain the interaction of two food-Grade Lactobacillus strains with zearalenone and its derivative (')alpha-earalenol.
The interaction between two Fusarium mycotoxins, zearalenone (ZEN) and its derivative (')alpha-zearalenol ((')alpha-ZOL), with two food-grade strains of Lactobacillus was investigated. The mycotoxins (2 microg ml(-1)) were incubated with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or L. rhamnosus strain LC705. A considerable proportion (38 to 46%) of both toxins was recovered from the bacterial pellet, and no degradation products of ZEN and (')alpha-ZOL were detected in the high-performance liquid chromatograms of the supernatant of the culturing media and the methanol extract of the pellet. Both heat-treated and acid-treated bacteria were capable of removing the toxins, indicating that binding, not metabolism, is the mechanism by which the toxins are removed from the media. Binding of ZEN or (')alpha-ZOL by lyophilized L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus LC705 was a rapid reaction: approximately 55% of the toxins were bound instantly after mixing with the bacteria. Binding was dependent on the bacterial concentration, and coincubation of ZEN with (')alpha-ZOL significantly affected the percentage of the toxin bound, indicating that these toxins may share the same binding site on the bacterial surface. These results can be exploited in developing a new approach for detoxification of mycotoxins from foods and feeds. (+info)
Effects of implant regimens (trenbolone acetate-estradiol administered alone or in combination with zeranol) and vitamin D3 on fresh beef color and quality.
In the first oftwo experiments, 123 calf-fed steers were used over a 2-yr period to evaluate the effects of trenbolone acetate (TBA)-based implants administered alone or in combination with zeranol implants on fresh beef muscle quality, color, and physiological maturity of the carcass. Implant treatments decreased (P < 0.05) a* values (d 0 and d 3 of retail display) and b* values (d 0, d 1, and d 3 of retail display) after 14 d of aging. Carcasses from cattle initially implanted with Revalor-S and reimplanted with Revalor-S on d 60 of the finishing period showed increased lean and bone maturity scores and ash content of the 9th to 11th thoracic buttons and Warner-Bratzler shear force values (WBS) compared to those initially implanted with Ralgro and subsequently reimplanted with Revalor-S or control cattle. In addition, implants decreased (P < 0.05) marbling, percentage of the carcasses grading Choice, and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH). Implant treatments increased (P < 0.05) ADG, hot carcass weights, and longissimus muscle (LM) area. In the second experiment over a 2-yr period, 166 steers fed as yearlings were allotted to one of two implant treatments and one of two vitamin D3 preharvest supplementation treatments. Implanted steers had heavier (P < 0.05) final body weights and higher (P < 0.05) ADG, less (P < 0.05) KPH fat, and larger (P < 0.05) LM. Also, implanted steers had more (P < 0.05) advanced bone maturity scores, higher (P < 0.05) ash content of the 9th to 11th thoracic buttons, and higher (P < 0.05) WBS values on 5-d postmortem loin steaks. Vitamin D3 feeding decreased (P < 0.05) final live weight, ADG (P < 0.05), and LM (P < 0.05), but did not significantly improve WBS values. In Experiment 2, neither implant treatment nor vitamin D3 supplementation had significant effects on L*, a*, or b* values of muscles in steaks before or during simulated retail display. (+info)
Phytoestrogens inhibit aromatase but not 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 in human granulosa-luteal cells: evidence for FSH induction of 17beta-HSD.
BACKGROUND: Studies using purified enzyme preparations, placental microsomes or cell lines have shown that certain phytoestrogens can inhibit the enzymes that convert androgens to estrogens, namely aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 and type 5. The study aim was to investigate the effects of selected phytoestrogens on aromatase and 17beta-HSD type 1 activity in primary cultures of human granulosa-luteal (GL) cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: GL cells, cultured for 48 h in medium containing 5% fetal calf serum and for a further 24 h in serum-free medium with or without hFSH or hCG, were exposed to steroid substrates during the last 1-4 h of the experiment. The production of progesterone in the presence of pregnenolone or estradiol synthesis from androstenedione, estrone or testosterone showed dose- and time-dependent increases. Whilst hCG priming had no effect on progesterone production, FSH priming induced mean 68 and 56% increases in the production of estradiol from androstenedione (A-dione) and estrone respectively, but had no significant effect on the metabolism of testosterone to estradiol. None of the phytoestrogens investigated had any acute effects on enzyme activity. In contrast, when GL cells were exposed to the compounds for 24 h prior to exposure to steroid substrates for 4 h, 10 micro mol/l apigenin and zearalenone significantly inhibited aromatase activity, whilst biochanin A and quercetin had no effect. None of the phytoestrogens inhibited FSH-induced 17beta-HSD type 1 activity, and only quercetin significantly inhibited progesterone production. CONCLUSIONS: The inability of phytoestrogens to acutely inhibit steroidogenic enzymes in human GL cells (as has been shown in cell-free models) suggests that they are either rapidly metabolized to relatively inactive compounds or that the high enzyme activity in human GL cells masks any inhibitory effects of the compounds at the concentration tested. (+info)