(1/184) The influence of chronic yogurt consumption on immunity.
There has been increased interest in the study of nutrition and immunity. This is especially true with respect to the hypothesis that consumption of specific foods may reduce an individual's susceptibility to the establishment and/or progression of immunologic disease. Although an increased intake of a specific food may improve health status in select cases, chronic consumption of large amounts of one specific food may in fact be detrimental. The studies described here examined the long-term effect of yogurt consumption on two different age populations, young adults (20-40 y) and senior adults (55-70 y). There were three study groups per age group, live-culture yogurt, pasteurized yogurt and control (no yogurt), given 200 g/d of yogurt for 1 y. The subjects completed a questionnaire detailing health parameters on a weekly basis and a 4-d food record was taken monthly. Blood was taken every 3 mo and complete blood chemistry, blood count, total and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production measured. Yogurt consumption, especially for the live-culture groups, was associated with a decrease in allergic symptoms in both age groups. Seniors in the control group experienced an increase in both total and LDL cholesterol, whereas those in the yogurt groups remained stable during the course of the study. There was little effect on IFN-gamma and IgE production, although seniors in the yogurt group had lower levels of total IgE throughout the year. (+info)
(2/184) An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT170 associated with kebab meat and yogurt relish.
During July 1995, an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 170, an unusual strain, occurred in South Wales. A case-control study found that illness was associated with eating kebabs (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.002), doner kebabs (odds ratio 7.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.5-20.5, P = 0.02) and kebabs with yoghurt based relish (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.009) but not with eating kebabs with mayonnaise-based relish (odds ratio 2.4, 95 % confidence interval 0.4-13.9, P = 0.53). Environmental investigations discovered a complex web of producers and wholesale suppliers. Kebab meat and yoghurt had been supplied to the two main implicated outlets by a single wholesaler. Samples of raw minced lamb and several environmental swabs taken at the wholesaler were positive for S. typhimurium DT170. Blood-stained, unsealed yoghurt pots were observed to be stored under a rack of raw lamb. Investigators of food poisoning outbreaks linked to takeaway food should consider cross-contaminated relishes and dressings as well as undercooked meat as potential vehicles of infection. (+info)
(3/184) Identification of Lactobacillus isolates from the gastrointestinal tract, silage, and yoghurt by 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region sequence comparisons.
Lactobacillus isolates were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of the region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (spacer region). The sequences obtained from the isolates were compared to those of reference strains held in GenBank. A similarity of 97.5% or greater was considered to provide identification. To check the reliability of the method, the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced in the case of isolates whose spacer region sequences were less than 99% similar to that of a reference strain. Confirmation of identity was obtained in all instances. Spacer region sequencing provided rapid and accurate identification of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from gastrointestinal, yoghurt, and silage samples. It had an advantage over 16S V2-V3 sequence comparisons because it distinguished between isolates of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. (+info)
(4/184) Prevention of yeast spoilage in feed and food by the yeast mycocin HMK.
The yeast Williopsis mrakii produces a mycocin or yeast killer toxin designated HMK; this toxin exhibits high thermal stability, high pH stability, and a broad spectrum of activity against other yeasts. We describe construction of a synthetic gene for mycocin HMK and heterologous expression of this toxin in Aspergillus niger. Mycocin HMK was fused to a glucoamylase protein carrier, which resulted in secretion of biologically active mycocin into the culture media. A partial purification protocol was developed, and a comparison with native W. mrakii mycocin showed that the heterologously expressed mycocin had similar physiological properties and an almost identical spectrum of biological activity against a number of yeasts isolated from silage and yoghurt. Two food and feed production systems prone to yeast spoilage were used as models to assess the ability of mycocin HMK to act as a biocontrol agent. The onset of aerobic spoilage in mature maize silage was delayed by application of A. niger mycocin HMK on opening because the toxin inhibited growth of the indigenous spoilage yeasts. This helped maintain both higher lactic acid levels and a lower pH. In yoghurt spiked with dairy spoilage yeasts, A. niger mycocin HMK was active at all of the storage temperatures tested at which yeast growth occurred, and there was no resurgence of resistant yeasts. The higher the yeast growth rate, the more effective the killing action of the mycocin. Thus, mycocin HMK has potential applications in controlling both silage spoilage and yoghurt spoilage caused by yeasts. (+info)
(5/184) Immunologic effects of yogurt.
Many investigators have studied the therapeutic and preventive effects of yogurt and lactic acid bacteria, which are commonly used in yogurt production, on diseases such as cancer, infection, gastrointestinal disorders, and asthma. Because the immune system is an important contributor to all of these diseases, an immunostimulatory effect of yogurt has been proposed and investigated by using mainly animal models and, occasionally, human subjects. Although the results of these studies, in general, support the notion that yogurt has immunostimulatory effects, problems with study design, lack of appropriate controls, inappropriate route of administration, sole use of in vitro indicators of the immune response, and short duration of most of the studies limit the interpretation of the results and the conclusions drawn from them. Nevertheless, these studies in toto provide a strong rationale for the hypothesis that increased yogurt consumption, particularly in immunocompromised populations such as the elderly, may enhance the immune response, which would in turn increase resistance to immune-related diseases. This hypothesis, however, needs to be substantiated by well-designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies of an adequate duration in which several in vivo and in vitro indexes of peripheral and gut-associated immune response are tested. (+info)
(6/184) Chronic consumption of fresh but not heated yogurt improves breath-hydrogen status and short-chain fatty acid profiles: a controlled study in healthy men with or without lactose maldigestion.
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of fermented dairy products induces changes in the equilibrium and metabolism of the intestinal microflora and may thus have beneficial effects on the host. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of chronic consumption of yogurt with (fresh) or without (heated) live bacterial cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) on plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, fatty acids, and short-chain fatty acids. DESIGN: Two groups of 12 healthy men with or without lactose malabsorption were selected with use of a breath-hydrogen test after a 30-g lactose load. Subjects were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 500 g/d of either fresh or heated yogurt for 2 periods of 15 d each, separated by a 15-d washout interval. RESULTS: Chronic consumption of fresh or heated yogurt had no detrimental effects on plasma glucose, insulin, or fatty acid areas under the curve in response to acute ingestion of 500 g yogurt in healthy men with or without lactose malabsorption. There were also no detectable changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, or cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, plasma butyrate was higher (P: < 0.03) and plasma propionate tended to be higher (P: = 0.059) in subjects without lactose malabsorption after fresh yogurt consumption than after heated yogurt consumption. There were no significant changes in plasma acetate. In subjects with lactose malabsorption, 15 d of fresh yogurt consumption also increased propionate production compared with values at baseline (P: < 0.04). In the same group, the production of breath hydrogen was lower after fresh yogurt consumption than after heated yogurt consumption (P: < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In men with lactose malabsorption, chronic consumption of yogurt containing live bacterial cultures ameliorated the malabsorption, as evidenced by lower breath-hydrogen excretion, but increased propionate concentrations. In subjects without lactose malabsorption, such yogurt tended to increase propionate and increased butyrate. (+info)
(7/184) Transgalactooligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a product rich in transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, Elix'or) stimulates true Ca absorption in postmenopausal women. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover study, consisting of two 9-d treatment periods separated by a 19-d washout period. During the treatment periods, 12 subjects drank 200 mL yogurt drink twice (at breakfast and lunch) containing either TOS (20 g/d) or the reference substance, sucrose. On d 8 of each treatment period, (44)Ca and (48)Ca were administered orally and intravenously, respectively. Before and during the 36 h after isotope administration, urine was collected and the ratios of isotopes present were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). From the isotope enrichments, true calcium absorption was calculated. TOS increased true calcium absorption 16%, from (mean +/- SD) 20.6 +/- 7.0% during the reference treatment to 23.9 +/- 6.9% during the TOS treatment (P: = 0.04, one-sided). In conclusion, in this study in postmenopausal women, greater Ca absorption was observed after consumption of a product rich in TOS (Elix'or) compared with the reference treatment. This increase in Ca absorption was likely due solely to TOS. The increased Ca absorption was not accompanied by increased urinary Ca excretion, meaning that TOS also may indirectly increase the uptake of Ca by bones and/or inhibit bone resorption. (+info)
(8/184) Serum lithium as a compliance marker for food and supplement intake.
BACKGROUND: Analyzing 24-h urine for lithium after consumption of lithium-tagged foods or supplements provides a validated compliance marker but is laborious. OBJECTIVE: Most studies involve blood sampling; therefore, we tested whether serum lithium concentration could be used as a compliance marker. DESIGN: We used serum lithium as a compliance marker in a dietary trial and an evaluation study. RESULTS: In the dietary trial, 78 volunteers consumed 500 mL yogurt tagged with lithium (250 micromol/d) for 6 wk. Serum lithium increased from 0.9+/-0.3 to 6.6+/-1.5 micromol/L, which was close to the predicted concentration, indicating that the subjects were highly compliant. However, the interindividual variability in serum lithium concentration was large. To test whether this variability resulted from compliance differences or natural variability, we performed an evaluation study: 12 subjects took a lithium supplement (250 micromol/d) for 13 d under supervision. Serum lithium increased from 0.14+/-0.03 to 3.9+/-0.8 micromol/L (range: 2.6-5.4 micromol/L); thus, there was wide interindividual variation in serum lithium despite 100% compliance. However, within-subject variability was small, with a CV of 7% for serum lithium measured on 4 different days. We checked whether taking half the dose on each of 2 d (125 micromol lithium/d) would significantly lower serum lithium. Indeed, serum lithium dropped in all subjects, by a mean of 1.0 micromol/L on the first day (P<0.0001) and by another 0.3 micromol/L on the second day (P = 0.0004). Thus, changes in serum lithium concentration of > or =1.0 micromol/L suggest altered compliance. CONCLUSION: Serum lithium concentrations after intake of lithium-tagged foods or supplements can be used to assess compliance in dietary trials. (+info)