Candidate viral diseases for elimination or eradication.
This article discusses the possibilities for elimination or eradication of four viral diseases--measles, hepatitis B, rubella and yellow fever. (+info)
Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles.
Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus. (+info)
First case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902.
The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever virus genome was detected in postmortem liver biopsies by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that this strain was most closely related to strains from Brazil and Ecuador. (+info)
Automated measurement of oxygen consumption by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.
Oxygen consumption of single mosquitoes was measured using a differential pressure transducer (DPT) connected to two small chambers. A mosquito was placed in the experimental chamber (P1) and was separated from NaOH by 4 cm2 of marquisette mesh. The reference chamber (P2) contained the same amount of NaOH and the marquisette mesh but without a mosquito. When these two chambers were sealed, removed O2 from P1 resulted in a pressure decrease with respect to P2. This pressure differential was transduced into an output voltage that was directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed by the mosquito. An array of eight DPTs was interfaced with an IBM 486 PC using an ADAC 5500MF analog to digital converter and software from ADAC (Direct View) to automate the recording procedure. We determined that our apparatus was sensitive enough to detect subtle differences in O2 consumption in mosquitoes subjected to different physiologic conditions. (+info)
Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two 17D yellow fever vaccines.
As part of the clinical validation process of a new working seed of a licensed yellow fever vaccine (new working seed PV26, Stamaril; Pasteur Merieux Connaught, Lyon, France), the immunogenicity and safety of two batches of this vaccine (PM-YF) were compared with those of another commercially available vaccine (Arilvax; Evans Medical-Wellcome, Liverpool, United Kingdom) in 211 healthy adults. While the geometric mean titer values at days 10-14 and day 28 after vaccination were higher in the PM-YF group, the vaccines provided equivalent seroprotection (titers > or = 1/10) one month after a single vaccine dose (100% PM-YF versus 99% W-YF; P = 0.001, by one-sided equivalence test). Both vaccines were safe. There were no serious local or systemic reactions reported, nor any clinically significant hepatic function abnormalities associated with the use of either vaccine. These two 17D yellow fever vaccines from different European vaccine manufacturers were highly immunogenic and safe, and provided equivalent seroprotection. (+info)
Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated, BIKEN) in U.S. soldiers: immunogenicity and safety of vaccine administered in two dosing regimens.
The safety and immunogenicity of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (Nakayama strain, monovalent / BIKEN) was studied in 538 U.S. soldiers in 1990. Three doses of vaccine from three consecutively manufactured lots were given on days 0, 7, and either 14 or 30. Serum for antibody determination was drawn at months 0, 2, and 6. Japanese encephalitis plaque reduction neutralization tests were performed by three laboratories on each specimen. Five hundred twenty-eight (98%) participants completed the immunization series. All recipients without antibody before immunization developed neutralizing antibody against JE virus. There were no differences in geometric mean titer among the three test lots at months 2 and 6. Soldiers who received the third dose on day 30 had higher titers at both time points. Antibody to yellow fever had no significant effect on immune response to vaccine. Conclusions drawn from analysis of serologic data from the three labs were nearly identical. Symptoms were generally limited to mild local effects and were reduced in frequency with each subsequent does in the series (21% to 11%; P < 0.0001). Generalized symptoms were rare (e.g., fever = 5%) with no reported cases of anaphylaxis. (+info)
Molecular and biological changes associated with HeLa cell attenuation of wild-type yellow fever virus.
Six passages of the mosquito-borne flavivirus yellow fever (YF) wild-type strain Asibi in HeLa cells attenuated the virus for monkeys and newborn mice and resulted in loss of mosquito competence. Attenuation after the passage in HeLa cells was not unique to YF virus strain Asibi as demonstrated by the HeLa passage attenuation of wild-type YF virus strain French viscerotropic virus and YF vaccine virus 17D-204 for newborn mice. In contrast, wild-type strain Dakar 1279 and the French neurotropic vaccine virus remained virulent for newborn mice after six passages in HeLa cells. Thus not all strains of YF virus can be attenuated by passage in HeLa cells. Attenuation of YF virus strains Asibi and French viscerotropic virus was accompanied by alterations in the antigenic and biological properties of the viruses, including changes to envelope protein epitopes. Attenuation for newborn mice was coincidental with the acquisition by the HeLa-passaged viruses of the vaccine-specific envelope protein epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody H5. This suggests that this conformational change may play a role in the attenuation process. Wild-type Dakar 1279, which remained virulent for newborn mice after passage in HeLa cells, retained its wild-type antigenic character. The genome of Asibi HeLa p6 virus differed from wild-type Asibi virus by 29 nucleotides that encoded 10 amino acid substitutions: 5 in the envelope protein, 1 in NS2A, 3 in NS4B, and 1 in NS5. The substitution at NS4B-95 is seen in three different attenuation processes of wild-type YF virus, leading us to speculate that it is involved in the attenuation of virulence of wild-type strain Asibi. (+info)
Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.
Behavioural responses of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to ammonia were investigated in a modified Y-tube olfactometer. Ammonia was attractive in concentrations from 17 ppb to 17 ppm in air when presented together with lactic acid. Aqueous solutions of ammonia salts in concentrations comparable to those found in human sweat also increased the attractiveness of lactic acid. The role of lactic acid as an essential synergist for ammonia became further apparent by the fact that ammonia alone or in combination with carbon dioxide was not effective, even though the synergistic effect of carbon dioxide and lactic acid was corroborated. An extract from human skin residues, which attracts approximately 80% of the tested mosquitoes, contains both lactic acid and ammonia. The combination of these compounds, however, attracts no more than 45%, indicating that other components on human skin also play a role in host finding. Preparative liquid chromatography of the skin extract yielded three behaviourally active fractions which work together synergistically. Fraction III contains lactic acid as the effective principle; the compositions of the other two have not been clarified yet. The attractiveness of fraction I was augmented considerably when ammonia was added, whereas the effect of fraction II was not influenced by ammonia. These results suggests that ammonia is part of the effective principle of fraction II and contributes to the attractive effect of host odours. (+info)