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(1/262) Accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mice deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene XPA.

Inheritable mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause cancer-prone human disorders, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, which are also characterized by symptoms of accelerated ageing. To study the impact of NER deficiency on mutation accumulation in vivo, mutant frequencies have been determined in liver and brain of 2-16 month old NER deficient XPA-/-, lacZ hybrid mice. While mutant frequencies in liver of 2-month old XPA-/-, lacZ mice were comparable to XPA+/-, lacZ and the lacZ parental strain animals, by 4 months of age mutant frequencies in the XPA-deficient mice were significantly increased by a factor of two and increased further until the age of 16 months. In brain, mutant frequencies were not found to increase with age. These results show that a deficiency in the NER gene XPA causes an accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in liver but not in brain. This is in keeping with a higher incidence of spontaneous liver tumors reported earlier for XPA-/- mice after about 15 months of age.  (+info)

(2/262) Resonance assignments, solution structure, and backbone dynamics of the DNA- and RPA-binding domain of human repair factor XPA.

XPA is involved in the damage recognition step of nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPA binds to other repair factors, and acts as a key element in NER complex formation. The central domain of human repair factor XPA (residues Met98 to Phe219) is responsible for the preferential binding to damaged DNA and to replication protein A (RPA). The domain consists of a zinc-containing subdomain with a compact globular structure and a C-terminal subdomain with a positively charged cleft in a novel alpha/beta structure. The resonance assignments and backbone dynamics of the central domain of human XPA were studied by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR methods. 15N relaxation data were obtained at two static magnetic fields, and analyzed by means of the model-free formalism under the assumption of isotropic or anisotropic rotational diffusion. In addition, exchange contributions were estimated by analysis of the spectral density function at zero frequency. The results show that the domain exhibits a rotational diffusion anisotropy (Dparallel/Dperpendicular) of 1.38, and that most of the flexible regions exist on the DNA binding surface in the cleft in the C-terminal subdomain. This flexibility may be involved in the interactions of XPA with various kinds of damaged DNA.  (+info)

(3/262) Defective repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage caused by reduced XPA protein in testicular germ cell tumours.

Metastatic cancer in adults usually has a fatal outcome. In contrast, advanced testicular germ cell tumours are cured in over 80% of patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy [1]. An understanding of why these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs is likely to have implications for the treatment of other types of cancer. Earlier measurements indicate that testis tumour cells are hypersensitive to cisplatin and have a low capacity to remove cisplatin-induced DNA damage from the genome [2] [3]. We have investigated the nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity of extracts from the well-defined 833K and GCT27 human testis tumour cell lines. Both had a reduced ability to carry out the incision steps of NER in comparison with extracts from known repair-proficient cells. Immunoblotting revealed that the testis tumour cells had normal amounts of most NER proteins, but low levels of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease complex. Addition of XPA specifically conferred full NER capacity on the testis tumour extracts. These results show that a low XPA level in the testis tumour cell lines is sufficient to explain their poor ability to remove cisplatin adducts from DNA and might be a major reason for the high cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumours. Targeted inhibition of XPA could sensitise other types of cells and tumours to cisplatin and broaden the usefulness of this chemotherapeutic agent.  (+info)

(4/262) Recognition of nonhybridizing base pairs during nucleotide excision repair of DNA.

Nondistorting C4' backbone adducts serve as molecular tools to analyze the strategy by which a limited number of human nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors recognize an infinite variety of DNA lesions. We have constructed composite DNA substrates containing a noncomplementary site adjacent to a nondistorting C4' adduct to show that the loss of hydrogen bonding contacts between partner strands is an essential signal for the recruitment of NER enzymes. This specific conformational requirement for excision is mediated by the affinity of xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein for nonhybridizing sites in duplex DNA. XPA recognizes defective Watson-Crick base pair conformations even in the absence of DNA adducts or other covalent modifications, apparently through detection of hydrophobic base components that are abnormally exposed to the double helical surface. This recognition function of XPA is enhanced by replication protein A (RPA) such that, in combination, XPA and RPA constitute a potent molecular sensor of denatured base pairs. Our results indicate that the XPA-RPA complex may promote damage recognition by monitoring Watson-Crick base pair integrity, thereby recruiting the human NER system preferentially to sites where hybridization between complementary strands is weakened or entirely disrupted.  (+info)

(5/262) Functional studies on the interaction between human replication protein A and Xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA).

The human replication protein A (RPA; also known as human single-stranded DNA binding protein, HSSB) is a multisubunit complex (70, 34 and 11 kDa subunits) involved in the three processes of DNA metabolism; replication, repair, recombination. We found that both 34 and 70 kDa subunits (p34 and p70, respectively), of RPA interacts with the Xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA), a protein that specifically recognizes UV-damaged DNA. Our mutational analysis indicated that no particular domains of RPA p70 were essential for its interaction with XPA. We also examined the effect of this XPA-RPA interaction on in vitro simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication catalyzed by the crude extract and monopolymerase system. XPA inhibited SV40 DNA replication in vitro through its interaction with RPA. Taken together, these results suggest that there is a role for RPA in the regulation of DNA metabolism through its ability to modulate the interactions of proteins involved in the processes of DNA metabolism.  (+info)

(6/262) Order of assembly of human DNA repair excision nuclease.

Human excision nuclease removes DNA damage by concerted dual incisions bracketing the lesion. The dual incisions are accomplished by sequential and partly overlapping actions of six repair factors, RPA, XPA, XPC, TFIIH, XPG, and XPF.ERCC1. Of these, RPA, XPA, and XPC have specific binding affinity for damaged DNA. To learn about the role of these three proteins in damage recognition and the order of assembly of the excision nuclease, we measured the binding affinities of XPA, RPA, and XPC to a DNA fragment containing a single (6-4) photoproduct and determined the rate of damage excision under a variety of reaction conditions. We found that XPC has the highest affinity to DNA and that RPA has the highest selectivity for damaged DNA. Under experimental conditions conducive to binding of either XPA + RPA or XPC to damaged DNA, the rate of damage removal was about 5-fold faster for reactions in which XPA + RPA was the first damage recognition factor presented to DNA compared with reactions in which XPC was the first protein that had the opportunity to bind to DNA. We conclude that RPA and XPA are the initial damage sensing factors of human excision nuclease.  (+info)

(7/262) Nickel(II) increases the sensitivity of V79 Chinese hamster cells towards cisplatin and transplatin by interference with distinct steps of DNA repair.

Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and to experimental animals. In contrast to their weak mutagenicity, they have been shown previously to increase UV-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and to interfere with the repair of UV-induced DNA lesions by disrupting DNA-protein interactions involved in DNA damage recognition. In the present study we applied cisplatin, transplatin and mitomycin C to investigate whether these enhancing effects and DNA repair inhibition are also relevant for other DNA damaging agents. Nickel(II) at non-cytotoxic concentrations of 50 microM and higher caused a pronounced increase in cisplatin-, transplatin- and mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity, which was neither due to an altered uptake of cisplatin or transplatin nor to an increase in DNA adduct formation. However, nickel(II) inhibited the repair of cisplatin- and transplatin-induced DNA lesions. In combination with transplatin, it decreased the incision frequency, indicating that the DNA damage recognition/incision step during nucleotide excision repair is affected in general by nickel(II). In support of this, concentrations as low as 10 microM nickel(II) decreased binding of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein to a cisplatin-damaged oligonucleotide. When combined with cisplatin, the incision frequency was affected only marginally, while nickel(II) led to a marked accumulation of DNA strand breaks, indicating an inhibition of the polymerization/ligation step of the repair process. This effect may be explained by interference with the repair of DNA-DNA interstrand crosslinks induced by cisplatin. Our results suggest that nickel(II) at non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits nucleotide excision repair and possibly crosslink repair by interference with distinct steps of the respective repair pathways.  (+info)

(8/262) Photocrosslinking locates a binding site for the large subunit of human replication protein A to the damaged strand of cisplatin-modified DNA.

The repair proteins XPA, XPC and replication protein A (RPA) have been implicated in the primary recognition of damaged DNA sites during nucleotide excision repair. Detailed structural information on the binding of these proteins to DNA lesions is however lacking. We have studied the binding of human RPA (hRPA) and hRPA-XPA-complexes to model oligonucleo-tides containing a single 1, 3-d(GTG)-cisplatin-modification by photocrosslinking and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. The 70 kDa subunit of hRPA can be crosslinked with high efficiency to cisplatin-modified DNA probes carrying 5-iodo-2"-deoxyuridin (5-IdU) as crosslinking chromophore. High efficiency crosslinking is dependent on the presence of the DNA lesion and occurs preferentially at its 5"-side. Examination of the crosslinking efficiency in dependence on the position of the 5-IdU chromophore indicates a specific positioning of hRPA with respect to the platination site. When hRPA and XPA are both present mainly hRPA is crosslinked to the DNA. Our mobility shift experiments directly show the formation of a stable ternary complex of hRPA, XPA and the damaged DNA. The affinity of the XPA-hRPA complex to the damaged DNA is increased by more than one order of magnitude as compared to hRPA alone.  (+info)