Characterization of ISXax1, a novel insertion sequence restricted to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (variants fuscans and non-fuscans) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria.
ISXax1 is a novel insertion sequence belonging to the IS256 and Mutator families. Dot blot, Southern blot, and PCR analyses revealed that ISXax1 is restricted to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (variants fuscans and non-fuscans) and X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains. Directed AFLP also showed that a high degree of polymorphism is associated with ISXax1 insertion in these strains. (+info)
A pthA homolog from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri responsible for host-specific suppression of virulence.
Strains of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri are differentiated into two groups with respect to aggressiveness (normal and weak) on Citrus grandis cultivars but not on other Citrus species such as Citrus sinensis. Random mutagenesis using the transposon Tn5 in X. axonopodis pv. citri strain KC21, which showed weak aggressiveness on a C. grandis cultivar, was used to isolate mutant KC21T46, which regained a normal level of aggressiveness on the cultivar. The gene inactivated by the transposon, hssB3.0, was shown to be responsible for the suppression of virulence on C. grandis. Sequence analysis revealed it to be a new member of the pthA homologs, which was almost identical in sequence to the other homologs except for the number of tandem repeats in the central region of the gene. hssB3.0 appears to be a chimera of other pthA homologs, pB3.1 and pB3.7, and could have been generated by recombination between these two genes. Importantly, in X. axonopodis pv. citri, hssB3.0 was found in all of the tested isolates belonging to the weakly aggressive group but not in the isolates of the normally aggressive group. Isolation of the virulence-deficient mutant KC21T14 from KC21, in which the pathogenicity gene pthA-KC21 was disrupted, showed that hssB3.0 induces a defense response on the host but partially interrupts canker development elicited by the pathogenicity gene in this bacterium. (+info)
Biofilm formation, epiphytic fitness, and canker development in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.
The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is responsible for the canker disease affecting citrus plants throughout the world. Here, we have evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in leaf colonization during canker development on lemon leaves. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of X. axonopodis pv. citri strains expressing the green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate attachment and biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic (leaf) surfaces. Wild-type X. axonopodis pv. citri attached to and formed a complex, structured biofilm on glass in minimal medium containing glucose. Similar attachment and structured biofilm formation also were seen on lemon leaves. An X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB mutant strain, defective in production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan, did not form a structured biofilm on either abiotic or biotic surfaces. In addition, the X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB showed reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces and reduced disease symptoms. These findings suggest an important role for formation of biofilms in the epiphytic survival of X. axonopodis pv. citri prior to development of canker disease. (+info)
Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens.
Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time, the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described strains continues to increase, with novel strains appearing in Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Florida in the last decade. Herbarium specimens of infected plants provide an historical record documenting both the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the pathogen in the past. However, no method was available to assess the genetic diversity within these herbarium samples. We have developed a method, insertion event scanning (IES), and applied the method to characterize the diversity present within CBC populations documented as herbarium specimens over the past century. IES is based on the specific amplification of junction fragments that define insertion events. The potential for IES in current forensic applications is demonstrated by finding an exact match of pathogen genotypes preserved in herbarium specimens from Japan and Florida, demonstrating the source of the original outbreak of citrus canker in Florida in 1911. IES is a very sensitive technique for differentiating bacterial strains and can be applied to any of the several hundred bacteria for which full genomic sequence data are available. (+info)
Two bacterial entophytes eliciting both plant growth promotion and plant defense on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to be used as microbial inoculants to reduce disease incidence and severity and to increase crop yield. Some of the PGPR have been reported to be able to enter plant tissues and establish endophytic populations. Here, we demonstrated an approach to screen bacterial endophytes that have the capacity to promote the growth of pepper seedlings and protect pepper plants against a bacterial pathogen. Initially, out of 150 bacterial isolates collected from healthy stems of peppers cultivated in the Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces of Korea, 23 putative endophytic isolates that were considered to be predominating and representative of each pepper sample were selected. By phenotypic characterization and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as species of Ochrobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Ralstonia, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Sporosarcina, Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas. Among them, two isolates, PS4 and PS27, were selected because they showed consistent colonizing capacity in pepper stems at the levels of 10(6)-10(7) CFU/g tissue, and were found to be most closely related to Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Pantoea ananatis, respectively, by additional analyses of their entire 16S rDNA sequences. Drenching application of the two strains on the pepper seedlings promoted significant growth of peppers, enhancing their root fresh weight by 73.9% and 41.5%, respectively. The two strains also elicited induced systemic resistance of plants against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. (+info)
Crystallographic structure and substrate-binding interactions of the molybdate-binding protein of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.
In Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac or X. citri), the modA gene codes for a periplasmic protein (ModA) that is capable of binding molybdate and tungstate as part of the ABC-type transporter required for the uptake of micronutrients. In this study, we report the crystallographic structure of the Xac ModA protein with bound molybdate. The Xac ModA structure is similar to orthologs with known three-dimensional structures and consists of two nearly symmetrical domains separated by a hinge region where the oxyanion-binding site lies. Phylogenetic analysis of different ModA orthologs based on sequence alignments revealed three groups of molybdate-binding proteins: bacterial phytopathogens, enterobacteria and soil bacteria. Even though the ModA orthologs are segregated into different groups, the ligand-binding hydrogen bonds are mostly conserved, except for Archaeglobus fulgidus ModA. A detailed discussion of hydrophobic interactions in the active site is presented and two new residues, Ala38 and Ser151, are shown to be part of the ligand-binding pocket. (+info)
The copper resistance operon copAB from Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri: gene inactivation results in copper sensitivity.
Structural model and ligand interactions of the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri oligopeptide-binding protein.
The oligopeptide-binding protein, OppA, ushers oligopeptide substrates to the membrane-associated oligopeptide permease (Opp), a multi-component ABC-type transporter involved in the uptake of oligopeptides by several bacterial species. In the present study, we report a structural model and an oligopeptide docking analysis of the OppA protein expressed by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. The X. citri OppA structural model showed a conserved three-dimensional structure, irrespective of the low amino acid identities with previously defined structures of Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium orthologs. Oligopeptide docking analysis carried out with the proposed model indicated that the X. citri OppA preferentially binds tri- and tetrapeptides. The present study represents the first structural analysis of an OppA ortholog expressed by a phytopathogen and contributes to the understanding of the physiology and nutritional strategies of X. citri. (+info)