Prevalence of generalised osteoarthritis in patients with advanced hip and knee osteoarthritis: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study.
OBJECTIVES: Different prevalences of generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) in patients with knee and hip OA have been reported. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate radiographic and clinical patterns of disease in a hospital based population of patient subgroups with advanced hip and knee OA and to compare the prevalence of GOA in patients with hip or knee OA, taking potential confounding factors into account. METHODS: 420 patients with hip OA and 389 patients with knee OA scheduled for unilateral total joint replacement in four hospitals underwent radiographic analysis of ipsilateral and contralateral hip or knee joint and both hands in addition to a standardised interview and clinical examination. According to the severity of radiographic changes in the contralateral joints (using Kellgren-Lawrence > or = grade 2 as case definition) participants were classified as having either unilateral or bilateral OA. If radiographic changes of two joint groups of the hands (first carpometacarpal joint and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints defined as two separate joint groups) were present, patients were categorised as having GOA. RESULTS: Patients with hip OA were younger (mean age 60.4 years) and less likely to be female (52.4%) than patients with knee OA (66.3 years and 72.5% respectively). Intensity of pain and functional impairment at hospital admission was similar in both groups, while patients with knee OA had a longer symptom duration (median 10 years) compared with patients with hip OA (5 years). In 41.7% of patients with hip OA and 33.4% of patients with knee OA an underlying pathological condition could be observed in the replaced joint, which allowed a classification as secondary OA. Some 82.1% of patients with hip and 87.4% of patients with knee OA had radiographic changes in their contralateral joints (bilateral disease). The prevalence of GOA increased with age and was higher in female patients. GOA was observed more often in patients with knee OA than in patients with hip OA (34.9% versus 19.3%; OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.21). Adjustment for the different age and sex distribution in both patient groups, however, takes away most of the difference (OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.96). CONCLUSION: The crude results confirm previous reports as well as the clinical impression of GOA being more prevalent in patients with advanced knee OA than in patients with advanced hip OA. However, these different patterns might be attributed to a large part to a different distribution of age and sex in these hospital based populations. (+info)
The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease.
We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Interindividual variation of physical load in a work task.
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the variation in physical work load among subjects performing an identical work task. METHODS: Electromyographs from the trapezius and infraspinatus muscles and wrist movements were recorded bilaterally from 49 women during a highly repetitive industrial work task. An interview and a physical examination were used to define 12 potential explanatory factors, namely, age, anthropometric measures, muscle strength, work stress, and musculoskeletal disorders. RESULTS: For the electromyographs, the means of the 10th percentiles were 2.2% and 2.8% of the maximal voluntary electrical activity (%MVE) for the trapezius and infraspinatus muscles, respectively. However, the interindividual variations were very large [coefficients of variation (CV) 0.75 and 0.62, respectively]. Most of the variance could not be explained; only height, strength, and coactivation of the 2 muscles contributed significantly (R2(adj)0.20-0.52). The variation was still large, though smaller (CV < or =0.63), for values normalized to relative voluntary electrical activity (RVE). For the wrist movements, the median velocity was 29 degrees per second, and the interindividual variations were small (CV < or =0.24). Six factors contributed to the explained variance (R2(adj)0.12-0.55). CONCLUSIONS: The interindividual variation is small for wrist movements when the same work tasks are performed. In contrast, the electromyographic variation is large, even though less after RVE normalization, which reduces the influence of strength, than when MVE is used. Because of these variations, several electromyographs are needed to characterize the exposure of a specific work task in terms of muscular load, and individual electromyographs are preferable when the worker' s risk of myalgia is being studied. (+info)
Incidence and causes of tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors in long distance paddle canoeists.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and causes of acute tenosynovitis of the forearm of long distance canoeists. METHOD: A systematic sample of canoeists competing in four canoe marathons were interviewed. The interview included questions about the presence and severity of pain in the forearm and average training distances. Features of the paddles and canoes were determined. RESULTS: An average of 23% of the competitors in each race developed this condition. The incidence was significantly higher in the dominant than the nondominant hand but was unrelated to the type of canoe and the angle of the paddle blades. Canoeists who covered more than 100 km a week for eight weeks preceding the race had a significantly lower incidence of tenosynovitis than those who trained less. Environmental conditions during racing, including fast flowing water, high winds, and choppy waters, and the paddling techniques, especially hyperextension of the wrist during the pushing phase of the stroke, were both related to the incidence of tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Tenosynovitis is a common injury in long distance canoeists. The study suggests that development of tenosynovitis is not related to the equipment used, but is probably caused by difficult paddling conditions, in particular uneven surface conditions, which may cause an altered paddling style. However, a number of factors can affect canoeing style. Level of fitness and the ability to balance even a less stable canoe, thereby maintaining optimum paddling style without repeated eccentric loading of the forearm tendons to limit hyperextension of the wrist, would seem to be important. (+info)
Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane volume as a marker of disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in the wrists of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with RA, randomized to receive disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy alone (11 patients) or DMARDs in combination with oral prednisolone (15 patients), were followed up for 1 year with contrast-enhanced MRI of the dominant wrist (months 0, 3, 6, and 12), conventional radiography (months 0 and 12), and clinical and biochemical examinations. Bone erosion (by MRI and radiography) and synovial membrane volumes (by MRI) were assessed. RESULTS: Significant synovial membrane volume reductions were observed after 3 and 6 months in the DMARD + prednisolone group, and after 6 and 12 months in the DMARD-alone group (P < 0.01-0.02, by Wilcoxon-Pratt analysis). The rate of erosive progression on MRI was highly correlated with baseline scores and, particularly, with area under the curve (AUC) values of synovial membrane volume (Spearman's sigma = 0.69, P < 0.001), but not with baseline or AUC values of local or global clinical or biochemical parameters, or with prednisolone treatment. In none of 5 wrists with baseline volumes <5 cm3, but in 8 of 10 wrists with baseline volumes > or =10 cm3, erosive progression was found by MRI and/or radiography, indicating a predictive value of synovial membrane volumes. MRI was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of progressive bone destruction (22 versus 12 new bone erosions). CONCLUSION: MRI-determined synovial membrane volumes are closely related to the rate of progressive joint destruction. Quantitative MRI assessment of synovitis may prove valuable as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in RA. (+info)
Assessment of mutilans-like hand deformities in chronic inflammatory joint diseases. A radiographic study of 52 patients.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patients with mutilans-like hand deformities in chronic inflammatory joint diseases and to determine radiographic scoring systems for arthritis mutilans (AM). METHODS: A total of 52 patients with severe hand deformities were collected during 1997. A Larsen hand score of 0-110 was formed to describe destruction of the hand joints. Secondly, each ray of the hand was assessed individually by summing the Larsen grade of the wrist and the grades of the MCP and PIP joints. When the sum of these grades was > or = 13, the finger was considered to be mutilated. A mutilans hand score of 0-10 was formed according to the number of mutilans fingers. Surgical treatment and spontaneous fusions were recorded. RESULTS: The study consisted of 22 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), nine with rheumatoid factor (RF) positive and 13 with RF negative arthritis, 27 patients with RF positive RA, and three adult patients with other diagnoses. The mean age of patients with adult rheumatic diseases was 27 years at the onset of arthritis. The mean disease duration in all patients was 30 years. The mean Larsen hand score was 93. Four patients had no mutilans fingers and in 15 patients all 10 fingers were mutilated. The Larsen hand score of 0-110 and the mutilans hand score of 0-10 correlated well (rs = 0.90). Fourteen patients showed spontaneous fusions in the peripheral joints. A total of 457 operations were performed on 48 patients. CONCLUSION: Both the Larsen hand score of 0-110 and the mutilans hand score of 0-10 improve accuracy in evaluating mutilans-like hand deformities, but in unevenly distributed hand deformities the mutilans hand score is better in describing deformation of individual fingers. (+info)
Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis reveals progression of erosions despite clinical improvement.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the progression of joint damage in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist and determine whether this technique can be used to predict prognosis. METHODS: An inception cohort of 42 early patients has been followed up prospectively for one year. Gadolinium enhanced MRI scans of the dominant wrist were obtained at baseline and one year and scored for synovitis, tendonitis, bone marrow oedema, and erosions. Plain radiographs were performed concurrently and scored for erosions. Patients were assessed clinically for disease activity and HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed. RESULTS: At one year, MRI erosions were found in 74% of patients (31 of 42) compared with 45% at baseline. Twelve patients (28.6%) had radiographic erosions at one year. The total MRI score and MRI erosion score increased significantly from baseline to one year despite falls in clinical measures of inflammation including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), and swollen joint count (p < 0.01 for all). Baseline findings that predicted carpal MRI erosions at one year included a total MRI score of 6 or greater (sensitivity: 93.3%, specificity 81.8%, positive predictive value 93.3%, p = 0.000007), MRI bone oedema (OR = 6.47, p < 0.001), MRI synovitis (OR = 2.14, p = 0.003), and pain score (p = 0.01). Radiological erosions at one year were predicted by a total MRI score at baseline of greater than 13 (OR = 12.4, p = 0.002), the presence of MRI erosions (OR = 11.6, p = 0.005), and the ESR (p = 0.02). If MRI erosions were absent at baseline and the total MRI score was low, radiological erosions were highly unlikely to develop by one year (negative predictive value 0.91 and 0.92 respectively). No association was found between the shared epitope and erosions on MRI (p = 0.4) or radiography (p = 1.0) at one year. CONCLUSIONS: MRI scans of the dominant wrist are useful in predicting MRI and radiological erosions in early RA and may indicate the patients that should be managed aggressively. Discordance has been demonstrated between clinical improvement and progression of MRI erosion scores. (+info)
SAPHO syndrome or psoriatic arthritis? A familial case study.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome and the group of spondylarthropathies. METHODS: Few reports of familial SAPHO have been published. We describe three children, two sisters and one brother, whose clinical and radiological presentation was in accordance with SAPHO syndrome. RESULTS: Two children developed psoriasis, and one child palmoplantar pustulosis. Both sacroiliac and sternoclavicular joints were involved in these three cases. Some features in our observations are also common to psoriatic arthritis. No association was found with HLA antigens, but a history of trauma preceding the onset of symptoms was present in all three children. CONCLUSIONS: We can consider that SAPHO is nosologically related to spondylarthropathies. Psoriatic arthritis could be the missing link between SAPHO and spondylarthropathies. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors are involved. (+info)