Marine vibrios associated with superficial septic lesions.
Three cases are reported in which a marine vibrio, Vibrio alginolyticus, was isolated from superficial septic lesions. All cases had been exposed to sea-water. The possible significane of these findings and the need for further investigations are discussed. (+info)
Solving stubborn-wound problem could save millions, team says.
Why do some wounds refuse to heal? A team in London, Ont., is attempting to determine the cellular and molecular clues that could lead to better treatment of recalcitrant wounds. (+info)
Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.
In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. (+info)
Hemorrhage decreases macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and interleukin-6 release: a possible mechanism for increased wound infection.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alteration in wound exudate cell immune function occurs after trauma-hemorrhage. BACKGROUND: Although clinical and experimental studies indicate that the rate of wound infection is increased after trauma and hemorrhagic shock, the underlying mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unknown. METHODS: Male C3H/HeN mice were subjected to a midline laparotomy and polyvinyl alcohol sponges were implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal wound before hemorrhage (35+/-5 mm Hg for 90 minutes and resuscitation) or sham operation. The wound exudate cells from the sponges were harvested on the first, third, and fifth postoperative day and cultured for 24 hours in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (10 microg/ml) or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and nitrite levels were determined in the supernatants. The distribution of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes was assessed in the sponge with and without in vivo injection of S. aureus. The phagocytic activity of isolated wound exudate cells was determined using fluorescent S. aureus. RESULTS: The composition of exudate cells was unaltered by hemorrhagic shock; however, in vivo injection of S. aureus significantly decreased the percentage of macrophages under such conditions. Wound exudate cell phagocytic activity and the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 was decreased on the first postoperative day. The release of IL-1beta and IL-6 was also decreased on the third postoperative day in hemorrhaged mice. On the fifth postoperative day, wound exudate cell cytokine production was comparable to that in shams. CONCLUSIONS: Because most wound infections occur early after severe trauma, these results suggest that the dysfunction of wound exudate cells after hemorrhage might contribute to the increased incidence of wound infections. Therefore, attempts to enhance or restore wound cell immune function might be helpful for decreasing the incidence of wound infections in trauma victims. (+info)
Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe.
We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland. (+info)
Linezolid activity compared to those of selected macrolides and other agents against aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated from soft tissue bite infections in humans.
Linezolid was tested against 420 aerobes and anaerobes, including 148 Pasteurella isolates, by an agar dilution method. Linezolid was active against all Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica isolates and most Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella dagmatis, and Pasteurella stomatis isolates. The MIC was +info)
Activity of gatifloxacin compared to those of five other quinolones versus aerobic and anaerobic isolates from skin and soft tissue samples of human and animal bite wound infections.
The activity of gatifloxacin against 308 aerobes and 112 anaerobes isolated from bite wound infections was studied. Gatifloxacin was active at +info)
Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds.
The antibacterial action of honey in infected wounds does not depend wholly on its high osmolarity. We tested the sensitivity of 58 strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from infected wounds, to a pasture honey and a manuka honey. There was little variation between the isolates in their sensitivity to honey: minimum inhibitory concentrations were all between 2 and 3% (v/v) for the manuka honey and between 3 and 4% for the pasture honey. Thus, these honeys would prevent growth of S. aureus if diluted by body fluids a further seven-fold to fourteen-fold beyond the point where their osmolarity ceased to be completely inhibitory. The antibacterial action of the pasture honey relied on release of hydrogen peroxide, which in vivo might be reduced by catalase activity in tissues or blood. The action of manuka honey stems partly from a phytochemical component, so this type of honey might be more effective in vivo. Comparative clinical trials with standardized honeys are needed. (+info)