Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer: influence of type of alcoholic beverage.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p for trend = 0.002). Corresponding relative risks for beer intake were 1.09 (95% CI 0.83-1.43) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.02-1.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.01); for spirits, they were 1.21 (95% CI 0.97-1.50) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.99-2.14), respectively (p for trend = 0.02). In women, the ability to detect associations with high alcohol intake and type of beverage was limited because of a limited range of alcohol intake. The authors concluded that in men, a high consumption of beer and spirits is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas wine intake may protect against the development of lung cancer. (+info)
Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion.
Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action. (+info)
Inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with Helicobacter pylori.
Alcoholic beverages are known to have strong antibacterial activity. It is unclear, however, to what degree their consumption affects colonization of the human stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a risk factor of various chronic diseases. The authors assessed the relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with H. pylori in a cross-sectional study among employees of a health insurance company and their household members (n = 425) in southern Germany. Quantitative information on alcohol consumption by beverage type and other factors that were known or suspected to be related to infection status was collected by a standardized questionnaire, and active infection was measured by the 13C-urea breath test. After control for confounding factors, there was a monotonic inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection (p for trend = 0.017). The odds ratio of infection among subjects who consumed more than 75 g of alcohol per week compared with subjects who did not drink alcohol was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval 0.12-0.81). The inverse relation with H. pylori infection was stronger for alcohol consumed in the form of wine than for alcohol from beer. Notwithstanding its cross-sectional design, this study seems to support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, particularly wine consumption, may reduce the odds of active infection with H. pylori. (+info)
Analysis and dynamics of the chromosomal complements of wild sparkling-wine yeast strains.
We isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains that are able to carry out the second fermentation of sparkling wine from spontaneously fermenting musts in El Penedes (Spain) by specifically designed selection protocols. All of them (26 strains) showed one of two very similar mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction patterns, whereas their karyotypes differed. These strains showed high rates of karyotype instability, which were dependent on both the medium and the strain, during vegetative growth. In all cases, the mtDNA restriction pattern was conserved in strains kept under the same conditions. Analysis of different repetitive sequences in their genomes suggested that ribosomal DNA repeats play an important role in the changes in size observed in chromosome XII, whereas SUC genes or Ty elements did not show amplification or transposition processes that could be related to rearrangements of the chromosomes showing these sequences. Karyotype changes also occurred in monosporidic diploid derivatives. We propose that these changes originated mainly from ectopic recombination between repeated sequences interspersed in the genome. None of the rearranged karyotypes provided a selective advantage strong enough to allow the strains to displace the parental strains. The nature and frequency of these changes suggest that they may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of the genetic diversity observed in S. cerevisiae wild populations. (+info)
The effects of wine and tobacco consumption on cognitive performance in the elderly: a longitudinal study of relative risk.
BACKGROUND: Evidence relating to the potentially protective effect of smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to senescent cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease is inconclusive. METHODS: The relationship between wine and tobacco consumption and cognitive change was assessed within a longitudinal study of normal elderly people showing recent instability in cognitive functioning using an extensive battery of cognitive tests. RESULTS: While moderate wine consumption was found to be associated with a fourfold diminishing of the risk of Alzheimer's disease (OR = 0.26), as found in other studies, this effect was found to disappear when institutionalization was taken into account. Wine consumption was associated with an increased risk of decline over time in attention and in secondary memory. No protective effect for Alzheimer's disease was found for smoking, although smoking was associated with a decreased risk for decline over time in attentional and visuospatial functioning. No clear combined effect of smoking and drinking was found, even though smoking was found to increase the risk of decline in language performance when adjusted on wine consumption. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest that wine and tobacco consumption may protect against Alzheimer's disease. (+info)
Does the concept of a standard drink apply to viticultural societies?
The use of standard drink units (SDUs) in the measurement of individual alcohol consumption has become widely popular in recent years. However, the ethanol content of drinks varies from country to country and is usually arrived at without scientific backing. The present study was designed to establish an SDU for a predominantly wine-drinking country (Spain). Two field studies were simultaneously conducted to gather data about home and public alcohol consumption in eight regions of the country with a total of 10751 subjects. The average alcohol content of a drink was very similar for wine and beer, whereas in the case of spirits it was almost double. Relevant differences were found across regions, drinking settings and city sizes. A Spanish SDU was set at 10 g of ethanol for wine and beer, with a measure of spirits accounting for two SDUs. The use of SDUs should be encouraged in primary health care settings. However, dispersion of data suggests that, when SDU is used as a screening tool, additional information should always be obtained in borderline cases. (+info)
Wine and good subjective health.
The association of subjective, self-rated suboptimal (average or poor) health with the intake of beer, wine, and liquor and alcohol intoxication was examined in a general population sample in Finland in 1992. The odds ratios were adjusted for several possible confounders with the use of logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects who drank no wine, suboptimal health was less frequent among both men and women who imbibed 1-4 drinks of wine, and more common among men who consumed > or = 10 drinks of wine or liquor. Moderate wine drinking seems to be related to good self-rated health. (+info)
Modulation of haemostatic function and prevention of experimental thrombosis by red wine in rats: a role for increased nitric oxide production.
1. The effects of ethyl alcohol and wine (red and white) on haemostatic parameters and experimental thrombosis were studied in rats; NO was evaluated as a possible mediator of these effects. 2. We found that red wine (12% alcohol) supplementation (8.4 +/- 0.4 ml d-1 in drinking water, for 10 days) induced a marked prolongation of 'template' bleeding time (BT) (258 +/- 13 vs 132 +/- 13 s in controls; P < 0.001), a decrease in platelet adhesion to fibrillar collagen (11.6 +/- 1.0 vs 32.2 +/- 1.3%; P < 0.01) and a reduction in thrombus weight (1.45 +/- 0.33 vs 3.27 +/- 0.39 mg; P < 0.01). 3. Alcohol-free red wine showed an effect similar to red wine. In contrast, neither ethyl alcohol (12%) nor white wine (12% alcohol) affected these systems. 4. All these effects were also observed after red wine i.v. injection (1 ml kg-1 of 1:4 dilution) 15 min before the experiments. 5. The effects of red wine were prevented by the NO inhibitor, N omega nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME). L-arginine, not D-arginine, reversed the effect of L-NAME on red wine infusion. 6. Red wine injection induced a 3 fold increase in total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter values of rat plasma with respect to controls, while white wine and alcohol did not show any effect. 7. Our study provides evidence that red wine modulates primary haemostasis and prevents experimental thrombosis in rats, independently of its alcohol content, by a NO-mediated mechanism. (+info)