Incidence and causes of tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors in long distance paddle canoeists.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and causes of acute tenosynovitis of the forearm of long distance canoeists. METHOD: A systematic sample of canoeists competing in four canoe marathons were interviewed. The interview included questions about the presence and severity of pain in the forearm and average training distances. Features of the paddles and canoes were determined. RESULTS: An average of 23% of the competitors in each race developed this condition. The incidence was significantly higher in the dominant than the nondominant hand but was unrelated to the type of canoe and the angle of the paddle blades. Canoeists who covered more than 100 km a week for eight weeks preceding the race had a significantly lower incidence of tenosynovitis than those who trained less. Environmental conditions during racing, including fast flowing water, high winds, and choppy waters, and the paddling techniques, especially hyperextension of the wrist during the pushing phase of the stroke, were both related to the incidence of tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Tenosynovitis is a common injury in long distance canoeists. The study suggests that development of tenosynovitis is not related to the equipment used, but is probably caused by difficult paddling conditions, in particular uneven surface conditions, which may cause an altered paddling style. However, a number of factors can affect canoeing style. Level of fitness and the ability to balance even a less stable canoe, thereby maintaining optimum paddling style without repeated eccentric loading of the forearm tendons to limit hyperextension of the wrist, would seem to be important. (+info)
Hyperendemic focus of Q fever related to sheep and wind.
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis which is caused by Coxiella burnetii and presents as both acute or chronic cases. The disease can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans by the inhalation of infected aerosols. The authors investigated the epidemiology of Q fever in the Bouches-du-Rhone district of southern France. The study area was centered around the small town of Martigues near the cities of Marseille and Aix-en-Provence, where the incidence of the disease seemed higher than in neighboring areas. Epidemiologic data included sheep breeding and wind. Between 1990 and 1995, Q fever was diagnosed in 289 patients, leading to an incidence rate of 35.4 per 100,000 in the study area (range: 6-132), compared with 6.6 in the area of Marseille, and 11.4 in the area of Aix-en-Provence. There was a graphical and statistical relation between the sheep densities, the incidence of the disease, and the strong, local wind known as the Mistral, which blows from the northwest. Although Coxiella burnetii transmission is multifactorial, we may speculate that the high endemicity in the study area is related to a contamination by aerosols because the Mistral blows through the local steppe where 70,000 sheep are bred. This public health problem requires further studies in order to confirm this hypothesis, and to identify more individual and preventable risk factors. (+info)
Shade and wind barrier effects on summertime feedlot cattle performance.
In each of three summertime trials conducted over consecutive years, approximately 110 predominantly black and black-white-face steers were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to one of 16 pens in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors consisted of cattle being fed in facilities with or without wind barriers and with or without shade. Steers were fed dry-rolled corn-based diets (1.43 Mcal/ kg, NEg). Mean starting date and days on feed were June 26 and 79, respectively. In unshaded areas, temperature and humidity averaged 21.6 degrees C and 77.9%, and the blackglobe-humidity index (BGHI) at 1500 averaged between 84.0 and 89.1. Each of four 6.1-x6.1-m structures (mean height = 3.4 m) with white steel roofs provided shade (2.65 m2/steer) for two pens. In facilities with wind barriers provided, airflow was reduced from the north and northwest by a 25-m-wide shelterbelt containing six rows of trees. For cattle fed in pens with wind barriers, shade increased (P<.05) gain from 0 to 56 d and decreased (P<.05) DMI/ADG from 0 to 28 d. Differences (P<.05) in performance were not found between shaded and unshaded cattle in any portion of the feeding period for cattle fed in the pens without wind barriers and over the entire feeding period in either type of facility. The shade response in pens with wind barriers seemed to be greater the 1st yr than in subsequent years. Differences in weather patterns among years, especially air temperature, humidity, and solar radiation, may partially explain this interaction. Also, in yr 1, cattle tended to have greater fat thickness at finish than in yr 2 and 3. Correlations between BGHI and DMI tended to be greater during the early portion of the trial (0 to 28 d) than over the entire trial. Correlations between the difference in BGHI under shade vs no shade and percentage of shade use had the greatest magnitude and were significant only in the first 28 d vs over the entire feeding period. Although no heat-related cattle deaths occurred in this study, results suggest that shade improves cattle performance in the summer when they are fed in facilities with winter wind protection available and have not become acclimated to hot conditions. Once cattle are acclimated or hot conditions subside, compensation by unshaded cattle offsets much of the initial benefits of providing shade. (+info)
Heat balance when wearing protective clothing.
This issue of the Annals of Occupational Hygiene is dedicated to the topic of heat stress evaluation. For this evaluation, several evaluation programs and international standards are available. In order to understand the reasoning and underlying theory behind these programs and standards, a basic knowledge of heat exchange processes between workers and their environment is needed. This paper provides an overview of the relevant heat exchange processes, and defines the relevant parameters (air and radiant temperature, humidity, wind speed, metabolic heat production and clothing insulation). Further it presents in more detail the relation between clothing material properties and properties of clothing ensembles made from those materials. The effects of clothing design, clothing fit, and clothing air permeability are discussed, and finally an overview of methods for the determination of clothing heat and vapour resistance is given. (+info)
Clothing evaporative heat resistance--proposal for improved representation in standards and models.
Clothing heat and vapour resistance are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement and wind on the static value of heat resistance in order to obtain the dynamic heat resistance of clothing ensembles. For clothing vapour resistance, few data were available so far. Indices for vapour permeability (im) and reduction factors for vapour transfer (Fpcl) of clothing were used instead, using a relation between heat and vapour resistance to derive the clothing vapour resistance from the value for clothing heat resistance. This paper reviews the two commonly used approaches (im and Fpcl), as well as five alternative approaches to the problem. The different approaches were evaluated for their accuracy and their usability. The present paper shows that the currently used relations are not adequate when the wearer of the clothing starts moving, or is exposed to wind. Alternative approaches are shown to improve the determination of dynamic clothing vapour resistance, though some are thought to be too complex. An empirical description of the relation between the clothing permeability index (im) and the changes in clothing heat resistance due to wind and movement was selected as the most promising method for deriving clothing vapour resistance. For this method the user needs to know the static heat resistance, the static im value of the clothing and the wind- and movement-speed of the wearer. This method results in a predicted maximal decrease in clothing vapour resistance by 78%, when clothing heat resistance is reduced by 50%, which is consistent with theoretical expectations and available data. (+info)
The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing.
This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press; Havenith, G., Holmer, I., den Hartog, E. and Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing evaporative heat resistance: proposal for improved representation in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press] to provide a practical suggestion for improving existing clothing models so that they can account for the effects of wind and human movement. The proposed method is presented and described in the form of a BASIC computer program. Analytical methods (for example ISO 7933) for the assessment of the thermal strain caused by human exposure to hot environments require a mathematical quantification of the thermal properties of clothing. These effects are usually considered in terms of 'dry' thermal insulation and vapour resistance. This simple 'model' of clothing can account for the insulation properties of clothing which reduce heat loss (or gain) between the body and the environment and, for example, the resistance to the transfer of evaporated sweat from the skin, which is important for cooling the body in a hot environment. When a clothed person is exposed to wind, however, and when the person is active, there is a potentially significant limitation in the simple model of clothing presented above. Heat and mass transfer can take place between the microclimate (within clothing and next to the skin surface) and the external environment. The method described in this paper 'corrects' static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take account of wind and human movement. It therefore allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers. (+info)
The role of performance tests, manikins and test houses in defining clothing characteristics relevant to risk assessment.
Clothing is an important determinant of human heat exchange and accordingly a critical factor for heat stress risk assessment. A large number of international standards exist concerning protective properties of clothing. However, few standards deal with ergonomic properties and requirements of clothing, making it difficult to evaluate the function of a clothing ensemble in terms of both protection and physiological strain or discomfort. The paper examines existing test methods and procedures for improvement of the situation. Much of the work are presently at research stages, but should in the near future be available for test houses and consumers. (+info)
Effects of complex radiative and convective environments on the thermal biology of the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).
The energy budgets of small endotherms are profoundly affected by characteristics of the physical environment such as wind speed, air temperature and solar radiation. Among these, solar radiation represents a potentially very large heat load to small animals and may have an important influence on their thermoregulatory metabolism and heat balance. In this investigation, we examined the interactive effects of wind speed and irradiance on body temperature, thermoregulatory metabolism and heat balance in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). We measured changes in metabolic heat production by exposing birds to different wind speeds (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and irradiance combinations (<3 W m(-2) and 936+/-11 W m(-2); mean +/- s.d.) at an air temperature of 10 degrees C. Body temperature was not affected by wind speed, but was significantly higher in animals not exposed to simulated solar radiation compared with those exposed at most wind speeds. In the absence of solar radiation, metabolic heat production was strongly affected by wind speed and increased by 30 % from 122 to 159 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1). Metabolic heat production was even more strongly influenced by wind speed in the presence of simulated solar radiation and increased by 51% from 94 to 142 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2. 0 m s(-1). Solar heat gain was negatively correlated with wind speed and declined from 28 to 12 W m(-2) as wind speed increased from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1) and, at its maximum, equaled 11% of the radiation intercepted by the animal. The overall thermal impact of the various wind speed and irradiance combinations on the animal's heat balance was examined for each treatment. Under cold conditions, with no solar radiation present, an increase in wind speed from 0.25 to 2.0 m s(-1) was equivalent to a decrease in chamber air temperature of 12.7 degrees C. With simulated solar radiation present, a similar increase in wind speed was equivalent to a decrease in chamber air temperature of 16 degrees C. Overall, shifting environmental conditions from a wind speed of 0.25 m s(-1) and irradiance of 936 W m(-2) to a wind speed of 2.0 m s(-1) with no short-wave radiation present was equivalent to decreasing chamber air temperature by approximately 20 degrees C. The sensitivity to changes in the convective environment, combined with the complex effects of changes in irradiance levels revealed by re-analyzing data published previously, significantly complicates the task of estimating the heat balance of animals in nature. (+info)