Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups.
We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy. (+info)
Homozygosity mapping to the USH2A locus in two isolated populations.
Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterised by progressive visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa and moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Usher syndrome is estimated to account for 6-10% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene locus in Usher type II (USH2) families has been assigned to a small region on chromosome 1q41 called the UHS2A locus. We have investigated two families with Usher syndrome from different isolated populations. One family is a Norwegian Saami family and the second family is from the Cayman Islands. They both come from relatively isolated populations and are inbred families suitable for linkage analysis. A lod score of 3.09 and 7.65 at zero recombination was reached respectively in the two families with two point linkage analysis to the USH2A locus on 1q41. Additional homozygosity mapping of the affected subjects concluded with a candidate region of 6.1 Mb. This region spans the previously published candidate region in USH2A. Our study emphasises that the mapped gene for USH2 is also involved in patients from other populations and will have implications for future mutation analysis once the USH2A gene is cloned. (+info)
Hereditary nephritis (with unusual renal histology): report of a first case from the West Indies.
A 21-year-old Grenadian girl undergoing investigation in Trinidad for anaemia was diagnosed as a case of hereditary nephritis. She had the clinical features of a nephropathy, nerve deafness and an ocular defect. Renal histology was exceptional in that in addition to the typical findings of a hereditary nephritis, cystic areas generally associated with medullary cystic disease were noted. Several members of the patient's maternal family were afflicted with either deafness visual distrubances or renal disease. (+info)
Clinical and subclinical vitamin D deficiency in Bradford children.
A survey of the vitamin D status of Bradford schoolchildren was carried out in April 1973, employing conventional biochemistry, radiology, and measurement of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels. Biochemical evidence of rickets was present in 45% of the Asians. When re-examined in September, several children showed spontaneous biochemical resolution; nevertheless, radiological abnormalities were present in 12% of the original sample. No evidence of rickets was detected in the smaller White sample. Minor biochemical abnormalities were present in 9 of the 40 West Indian children. A study of admissions of Bradford hospitals in the 4 years 1969-1972 inclusive confirmed that clinical vitamin D deficiency was confined to Asians except for a few cases of infantile rickets in White children. The probability that one Asian child in 40 may require admission during the period from birth to adolescence emphasizes the urgent need for the introduction of prophylactic measures. (+info)
Retrospective analysis of risk factors for late presentation of chronic glaucoma.
BACKGROUND: Why some individuals present to the ophthalmologist in the early stages of chronic glaucoma but others present with very advanced visual field loss is a question which has received little attention. This study is an attempt to identify some basic characteristics of people who present with late glaucoma. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study by medical record review was employed. 100 cases and 100 controls were identified from the notes of patients presenting to Moorfields Eye Hospital glaucoma service between July 1993 and July 1995. Cases were defined as new patients presenting with absolute field loss within five degrees of fixation and a cup to disc ratio of greater than 0.8 in one or both eyes. Controls were new patients with no absolute field loss within 20 degrees in either eye, but otherwise typical glaucomatous field loss and a cup to disc ratio of greater than 0.5 or a difference of 0.2 or more between the discs. RESULTS: The ethnic origin, sex, referral source, presenting IOP, and age of the subjects studied were independently associated with late presentation. An African Caribbean patient is estimated to be four and a half times more likely to attend with advanced field loss than a white patient of similar age, sex, IOP, and referral source (adj OR: 4.55, 95% CI [1.57, 13.18]). A female patient is estimated to be one third (0.34, [0.15, 0.74]) as likely to attend late than a male patient of the similar age, IOP, ethnic origin, and referral source. A patient referred via any source other than an optometrist with the correct diagnosis is estimated to be greater than four times (4.32 [1.89, 9.88]) more likely to be a late attender than a patient of the same sex, ethnicity, and similar age but referred with a diagnosis of glaucoma. There was a trend of increasing odds of late presentation with increasing age (adj OR per 10 years, baseline 40-49 years 1.68 [1.22, 2.20]). A patient whose presenting IOP is 21-25 mm Hg is estimated to be a quarter (0.24, [0.09, 0.64]) as likely to attend with advanced field loss than a patient of the same ethnic origin, sex, age, referral source, but with presenting IOP of greater than 31 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: These data strongly suggest that certain subgroups of patients with glaucoma are likely to be at greater risk of presenting with advanced and irremediable field loss. (+info)
Gonorrhoea in women and exposure to risk.
Data are presented on the characteristics of women with newly diagnosed gonorrhoea who attended Lydia Clinic, St. Thomas' Hospital, during a 6-month period. Although gonorrhoea in women is largely asymptomatic, there was strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that some women had attended because they had been exposed to risk. The proportion of women thus motivated was largest among those women who had attended a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases before--in which up to 40 per cent. of women had apparently attended entirely of their own accord. Women born in the West Indies differed from their counterparts born in the United Kingdom in three respects: they were younger, recorded fewer contacts, and referred themselves less frequently to the clinic for a first visit. Implications for health education and for future research are discussed. (+info)
Race and diurnal blood pressure patterns. A review and meta-analysis.
Investigators have reported variable findings regarding the role of race in diurnal blood pressure patterns. We performed a review and meta-analysis of this literature to identify the overall effect of race on circadian blood pressure patterns. Eighteen studies involving 2852 participants were reviewed. Meta-analyses were conducted using effect sizes calculated from the data provided directly in the study reports. Separate meta-analyses were conducted on effect sizes for differences between blacks and whites in daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure and nocturnal dip in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. To evaluate discrepancies in findings from studies involving American versus non-American blacks, overall meta-analyses as well as within-subset meta-analyses of black/white differences were conducted for comparisons involving American and non-American blacks. Results of overall meta-analyses indicate that blacks experience higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, both at night and during the day. These differences were significantly greater at night than during the day (P<0.05). Results of within-subset analyses involving American blacks mirrored those for all black/white comparisons, except that the effect of race on nocturnal dip, ie, that American blacks experienced less of a dip in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at night, was significant (P<0.05). In contrast, the effect of race on nocturnal dip was not significant for comparisons involving non-American blacks. These results suggest a consistent difference in the chronobiology of blood pressure, particularly in American blacks. (+info)
Cytogenetic evidence for a species complex within Anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald (Diptera: Culicidae).
Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was collected from Acapulco, Mexico and Sallee River, Grenada, West Indies and used in cross-mating experiments. Larvae from the cross, Mexico female X Grenada male, died in the third instar. However, adult progeny were obtained from the reciprocal cross Grenada female x Mexico male. These hybrid males had testes with apparently normal appearance but some without viable sperm. Polytene chromosomes obtained from hybrid females exhibited extensive asynapsis of the X chromosomes. Previously undescribed fixed inversion differences between the two populations were noted on the X chromosome. It is concluded that the two populations belong to different species. The Grenada population is designated An. pseudopunctipennis species C, since it is the third taxon recognized in this species complex. (+info)