Von Hippel's disease in association with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis.
Ten members of a large family who showed manifestations of either von Hippel-Lindau disease or von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis were examined. Three of 10 members were found to have retinal angiomas which had not been present on fundus examination 3 years previously. These angiomas were associated with ocular and systemic signs of neurofibromatosis. These cases show overlapping manifestations of different phakomatoses and provide support for the concept of a common aetiology for these diseases. (+info)
Structure of the VHL-ElonginC-ElonginB complex: implications for VHL tumor suppressor function.
Mutation of the VHL tumor suppressor is associated with the inherited von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) cancer syndrome and the majority of kidney cancers. VHL binds the ElonginC-ElonginB complex and regulates levels of hypoxia-inducible proteins. The structure of the ternary complex at 2.7 angstrom resolution shows two interfaces, one between VHL and ElonginC and another between ElonginC and ElonginB. Tumorigenic mutations frequently occur in a 35-residue domain of VHL responsible for ElonginC binding. A mutational patch on a separate domain of VHL indicates a second macromolecular binding site. The structure extends the similarities to the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex that targets proteins for degradation, supporting the hypothesis that VHL may function in an analogous pathway. (+info)
Third International Meeting on von Hippel-Lindau disease.
Five years after the identification of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, physicians, scientists and concerned VHL family members met to review the current state of knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment of VHL and to summarize the latest information on the biochemistry of the VHL protein (pVHL). The NIH and University of Pennsylvania groups reported the detection of germ-line mutations in 100% (93 of 93) of VHL families studied. Several studies determined the frequency of VHL germ-line mutations in individuals with a single manifestation of VHL without a family history of VHL. National groups to improve the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with VHL disease have been established in Great Britain, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United States. Evidence for the existence of genes that modify the expression of VHL was presented. The VHL protein appears to have several distinct functions: (a) down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible mRNAs; (b) proper assembly of the extracellular fibronectin matrix; (c) regulation of exit from the cell cycle; and (d) regulation of expression of carbonic anhydrases 9 and 12. (+info)
Trichloroethylene exposure and specific somatic mutations in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: The development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been associated with both genetic and environmental factors-with mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene for clear-cell RCC specifically and with long-term exposure to high doses of trichloroethylene (TRI), an industrially important solvent, for RCC generally. We investigated whether TRI exposure produces RCC through a specific mutational effect on the VHL gene by analyzing VHL sequences in the RCCs of patients exposed to high, cumulative doses of TRI. METHODS: The level of exposure for each of 44 patients with RCC who had known industrial exposure to TRI was classified according to the duration, frequency, and mode of exposure. Samples of normal and cancerous tissues were microdissected from paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA was isolated from these samples, and somatic VHL mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, DNA sequencing, and restriction enzyme digestion. Control samples included RCC DNA from 107 patients without known TRI exposure and lymphocyte DNA from 97 healthy subjects. RESULTS: RCCs of TRI-exposed patients showed somatic VHL mutations in 33 (75%) of 44 cases. The mutations were frequently multiple and accompanied by loss of heterozygosity, and there was an association between the number of mutations and the severity of TRI exposure. We observed a specific mutational hot spot at VHL nucleotide 454 in the RCCs of 13 (39%) of the patients, and this mutation was present in adjacent non-neoplastic kidney parenchyma in four of these patients. The nucleotide 454 mutation was neither detected in any of the RCCs from patients without TRI exposure nor in any of the healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that RCC in patients with high, cumulative TRI exposure is associated with a unique mutation pattern in the VHL gene. (+info)
Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
BACKGROUND: The detection of pheochromocytomas in patients at risk for these tumors, such as patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2), is hindered by the inadequate sensitivity of commonly available biochemical tests. In this study we evaluated measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2. METHODS: We studied 26 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 9 patients with MEN-2 who had histologically verified pheochromocytomas and 50 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2 who had no radiologic evidence of pheochromocytoma. Von Hippel-Lindau disease and MEN-2 were diagnosed on the basis of germ-line mutations of the appropriate genes. The plasma concentrations of normetanephrine and metanephrine were compared with the plasma concentrations of catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) and urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines, and vanillylmandelic acid. RESULTS: The sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for the detection of tumors was 97 percent, whereas the other biochemical tests had a sensitivity of only 47 to 74 percent. All patients with MEN-2 had high plasma concentrations of metanephrine, whereas the patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease had almost exclusively high plasma concentrations of only normetanephrine. One patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease had a normal plasma normetanephrine concentration; this patient had a very small adrenal tumor (<1 cm). The high sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine was accompanied by a high level of specificity (96 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine are useful in screening for pheochromocytomas in patients with a familial predisposition to these tumors. (+info)
Localization of the human caveolin-3 gene to the D3S18/D3S4163/D3S4539 locus (3p25), in close proximity to the human oxytocin receptor gene. Identification of the caveolin-3 gene as a candidate for deletion in 3p-syndrome.
Caveolin-3, a muscle-specific caveolin-related protein, is the principal structural protein of caveolae membrane domains in striated muscle cell types (cardiac and skeletal). Recently, we identified an autosomal dominant form of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in humans that is due to mutations within exon 2 of the caveolin-3 gene (3p25). However, the detailed location of the human caveolin-3 gene and its position with regard to neighboring genes remains unknown. Here, we have isolated three independent BAC clones containing the human caveolin-3 gene. Using a PCR-based approach, we determined that these clones contain both exons 1 and 2 of the human caveolin-3 gene. In addition, we performed microsatellite marker analysis of these BAC clones, using a panel of 13 markers that are known to map within the 3p25 region. Our results indicate that these BAC clones contain the following three markers: D3S18, SHGC-1079 (also known as D3S4163) and D3S4539. Interestingly, D3S18 is a marker for two known human diseases, von Hippel-Lindau disease and 3p-syndrome. As D3S4163 and D3S4539 are known to map in the vicinity of the 3' end of the human oxytocin receptor gene, we determined if these caveolin-3 positive BACs also contain the oxytocin receptor gene. We show that (i) these BACs contain all four exons of the oxytocin receptor gene and (ii) that the genes encoding caveolin-3 and the oxytocin receptor are located approximately 7-10 kb apart and in the opposite orientation. As 3p-syndrome is characterized by cardiac septal defects and caveolin-3 is expressed primarily in the heart and skeletal muscle, caveolin-3 is a candidate gene that may be deleted in 3p-syndrome. (+info)
The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells.
Loss of function in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene occurs in familial and most sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL has been linked to the regulation of cell cycle cessation (G(0)) and to control of expression of various mRNAs such as for vascular endothelial growth factor. RCC cells express the Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and Met mediates invasion and branching morphogenesis in many cell types in response to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We examined the HGF/SF responsiveness of RCC cells containing endogenous mutated (mut) forms of the VHL protein (VHL-negative RCC) with that of isogenic cells expressing exogenous wild-type (wt) VHL (VHL-positive RCC). We found that VHL-negative 786-0 and UOK-101 RCC cells were highly invasive through growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel-coated filters and exhibited an extensive branching morphogenesis phenotype in response to HGF/SF in the three-dimensional (3D) GFR Matrigel cultures. In contrast, the phenotypes of A498 VHL-negative RCC cells were weaker, and isogenic RCC cells ectopically expressing wt VHL did not respond at all. We found that all VHL-negative RCC cells expressed reduced levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) relative to the wt VHL-positive cells, implicating VHL in the regulation of this molecule. However, consistent with the more invasive phenotype of the 786-0 and UOK-101 VHL-negative RCC cells, the levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were reduced and levels of the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were elevated compared to the noninvasive VHL-positive RCC cells. Moreover, recombinant TIMPs completely blocked HGF/SF-mediated branching morphogenesis, while neutralizing antibodies to the TIMPs stimulated HGF/SF-mediated invasion in vitro. Thus, the loss of the VHL tumor suppressor gene is central to changes that control tissue invasiveness, and a more invasive phenotype requires additional genetic changes seen in some but not all RCC lines. These studies also demonstrate a synergy between the loss of VHL function and Met signaling. (+info)
Renal cancer genetics: von Hippel Lindau and other syndromes.
There have been significant advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of renal carcinogenesis. In particular, research in the last five years has demonstrated a central role for the inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau gene by mutation or hypermethylation in the formation of the conventional type of renal cell carcinoma. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is characterised by germ-line inactivating mutation whereas sporadic renal carcinoma is associated with somatic mutations. Tumour formation is accompanied by loss of the remaining wild-type allele. The biology of the von Hippel-Lindau gene and its normal function continued to be unravelled but a role has been demonstrated for it in the regulation of gene transcription, the regulation of oxygen-dependent genes and their expression and the control of tumour angiogenesis acting via the vascular endothelial growth factor. Another form of familial renal cancer, the hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma, has been shown to be consequent upon activating mutations of the c-met proto-oncogene. The genetic data continue to enhance our understanding of the biology of this common set of neoplasms. (+info)