(1/92) Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria.

We studied 424 adults with falciparum malaria admitted over 28 months. They were divided into three groups: cerebral malaria (n = 214); severe non-cerebral malaria (n = 58); and uncomplicated malaria (n = 152). Fundus examination was done daily from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haemorrhages, 40 (9.43%) (25 cerebral malaria, 10 severe non-cerebral and five uncomplicated malaria); papilloedema, 17 (7.94%) cerebral malaria and two uncomplicated malaria; blurring of disc margins, 25 (11.68%) cerebral and seven non-cerebral; retinal oedema, six (2.80%) cerebral and five non-cerebral malaria; disc pallor, five patients all with cerebral malaria; vitreous haemorrhage and hard exudate in one patient each, both cerebral malaria. Retinal haemorrhage was associated with cerebral malaria and severe non-cerebral malaria, especially with severe anaemia (p < 0.001), as compared to uncomplicated malaria (p < 0.01). The association of papilloedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria (p < 0.001). None of these findings was associated with statistically significant mortality, except disc pallor in cerebral malaria (p < 0.05).  (+info)

(2/92) New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB/c mice were investigated following infection with Toxocara canis. METHODS: Using an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes of fundi of 20 gerbils and 11 mice were monitored after oral infection with embryonated eggs of T canis. RESULTS: Vitreous, choroidal, and retinal haemorrhages were consistently observed in Mongolian gerbils, but rarely in mice. Severe exudative lesions and vasculitis were often present in gerbils but not in mice. Migrating larvae were also frequently observed in gerbils. CONCLUSION: Mongolian gerbils are more appropriate animal model for human ocular toxocariasis than previously used experimental animal such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys because of its high susceptibility of ocular infection.  (+info)

(3/92) Vascular adhesion molecules in vitreous from eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

PURPOSE: To investigate whether proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PDR) is associated with a selective increase in vitreous levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte extravasation and interaction with endothelium during processes of inflammation and neovascularization. METHODS: Vitreous from 55 patients undergoing vitrectomy for treatment of PDR complicated by vitreous hemorrhage and/or traction retinal detachment was assayed for the presence of the soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Vitreous from 12 cadaveric eyes matching age and sex of the patients were used as control samples. RESULTS: Vitreous levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly higher in eyes with PDR than in control cadaveric vitreous, and levels of all three molecules did not relate to the type or duration of diabetes mellitus. However, eyes with either traction retinal detachment alone or both traction retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage exhibited significantly higher levels of sICAM-1 and sE-selectin than eyes with vitreous hemorrhage alone. Vitreous levels of sVCAM-1 were similar in eyes with either vitreous hemorrhage or traction retinal detachment alone. CONCLUSIONS: The present observations suggest that molecular inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to processes of neovascularization and fibrosis observed in PDR, possibly not as the causative event, but as a result of endothelial, Muller, and retinal pigment epithelial cell activation. The results also indicate that retinal detachment amplifies the existing inflammation within the diabetic retina. Identification of any abnormalities in the production and control of specific adhesion molecules could have important implications in the design of new therapeutic regimens to treat and prevent this sight-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.  (+info)

(4/92) Changes in vitreous concentrations of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: implications for intraocular hHGF production.

We measured human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) concentrations in the original vitreous and in the artificial vitreous after vitrectomy in 13 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) undergoing repeated pars plana vitrectomy, in order to investigate whether the vitreous hHGF concentration is related to the recurrence of PDR after vitrectomy as well as to the original occurrence of PDR. We also examined the relationship between vitreous concentrations of hHGF and transforming growth factor-beta(2) (TGF-beta(2)), the predominant TGF-beta isoform in the vitreous, in 14 patients with PDR. For the original vitreous, mean hHGF concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in that from patients with severe PDR (vitreous haemorrhage, fibrovascular proliferation and tractional retinal detachment) than in that from patients with vitreous haemorrhage alone. In the artificial vitreous, mean vitreous hHGF concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in that from patients with severe PDR than in that from patients with vitreous haemorrhage alone or with vitreous haemorrhage plus fibrovascular proliferation. No correlation was found between the hHGF concentration in the artificial vitreous and time between vitrectomies. Vitreous hHGF concentrations were directly proportional to vitreous concentrations of latent TGF-beta(2) (r=0. 831; P=0.0002), but inversely proportional to vitreous concentrations of active TGF-beta(2) (r=0.495; P=0.072), which inhibits hHGF production. A decreased conversion of latent into active TGF-beta(2) in ocular disorders such as PDR is likely to result in an increased concentration of hHGF in the vitreous. Thus intraocular hHGF may be involved in pathological mechanisms causing not only the occurrence, but also the recurrence, of PDR.  (+info)

(5/92) Air bags and ocular injuries.

PURPOSE: This investigation retrospectively examined ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment to gain a better appreciation of potential risk factors in motor vehicle accidents. National statistics regarding the efficacy of air bags were reviewed. METHODS: Review of the literature from 1991 to 1998 identified 44 articles describing 97 patients with air-bag-induced ocular injuries. Variables extracted from each case were age, sex, height, position in the car, eye wear, vehicle impact speed, visual acuity, and specific ocular injuries. RESULTS: Corneal abrasions occurred in 49% of occupants, hyphemas in 43%, vitreous or retinal hemorrhages in 25%, and retinal tears or detachments in 15%. The globe was ruptured in 10 patients. Patients involved in higher-speed accidents (over 30 mph) sustained a greater percentage of vitreous or retinal hemorrhages and traumatic cataracts, while those at slower speeds were more prone to retinal tears or detachments. In a subset of 14 patients with serious ocular injuries, the impact speed of 11 patients was recorded at 30 mph or less. Slower speed may be a risk factor for some ocular injuries. Occupant height was not a significant factor. National statistics confirm that air bags reduce fatalities in motor vehicle accidents. However, children sitting in the front seat without a seat belt and infants in passenger-side rear-facing car seats are at risk for fatal injury. CONCLUSION: Air bags combined with seat belts are an effective means of reducing injury and death in adults during motor vehicle accidents. However, this study has documented a wide variety of ocular injuries associated with air bag deployment. It is hoped that researchers can develop modifications that continue to save lives while minimizing additional harm.  (+info)

(6/92) Congenital retinal arterial loops and spontaneous vitreous haemorrhage: a case report.

This report describes a case of unilateral spontaneous vitreous haemorrhage associated with congenital retinal arterial loops.  (+info)

(7/92) Fibrovascular ingrowth and recurrent haemorrhage following diabetic vitrectomy.

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the outcome of management of fibrovascular ingrowth (FVI) in eyes undergoing vitreous cavity washout (VCWO) following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy. METHOD: FVI was searched for at VCWO for in 19 consecutive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy undergoing vitreous surgery for recurrent vitreous cavity haemorrhage over an 18 month period; the findings were correlated with the presence or absence of associated sclerotomy vessels externally. Eyes with richly vascularised ingrowths from the pars plana entry sites, as well as eyes with less extensive ingrowths but extensive retinal ablation applied at previous surgery for recurrent haemorrhage, underwent lensectomy and ciliary membrane dissection in addition to extensive retinopexy (n=6). Less severe cases received peripheral laser and cryotherapy only. The outcome of repeat surgery was studied prospectively in the 11 eyes with FVI. RESULTS: 11 of the 19 eyes had a definite FVI from one or more of the original pars plana sclerotomies. In six of 11 eyes with FVI a large external episcleral vessel was present entering the original sclerotomy sites at which ingrowth was found peroperatively, but such sclerotomy vessels were also present in three of eight eyes with no FVI detected on the internal aspect of the sclerotomy. Two patients were lost to follow up and the remaining nine patients with FVI had no further vitreous cavity haemorrhage during initial follow up of 2-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: FVI has until now been considered an infrequent occurrence following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy. These findings would suggest that it is not uncommon and careful examination of the sclerotomy sites should be undertaken in all cases with recurrent haemorrhage and if FVI is found this should be treated appropriately.  (+info)

(8/92) Inadvertent topical exposure to isocyanates caused damage to the entire eyeball.

Isocyanates are part of a group of important chemicals necessary in the production of adhesives, synthetic rubbers, and a variety of plastics. They are known to have minimal toxic effects when administered locally. However, we experienced a case of damage involving the entire eyeball in a person who accidentally exposed his eye to isocyanates. The patient presented with inflamed conjunctiva, and shrunken cornea and sclera, with focal atrophic changes in the iris. The lens and vitreous were opacified. After removal of the lens and vitreous, there were large areas of atrophic retina and areas of retinal necrosis with holes. We found that locally absorbed isocyanates can cause damage to the entire eyeball. Therefore, we recommend that if there is any evidence of isocyanate penetration, early vitrectomy should be performed to help in determining the extent of retina damage and to decrease the amount of toxic substance in the vitreous.  (+info)